How to format your references using the Disaster Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disaster Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. A chemical imbalance. Nature 2002; 418:3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bard E, Rickaby REM. Migration of the subtropical front as a modulator of glacial climate. Nature 2009; 460:380–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser SM, Malik HS, Emerman M. Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein. Science 2007; 316:1756–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Du L, Lei DY, Yuan G, Fang H, Zhang X, Wang Q, Tang D, Min C, Maier SA, Yuan X. Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Sci Rep 2013; 3:3064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer A. Der perfekte Tipp. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Psaraftis HN, editor. Green Transportation Logistics: The Quest for Win-Win Solutions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar S, Barai SV. Fracture Properties of Concrete Based on the K R Curve Associated with Cohesive Stress Distribution. In: Barai SV, editor. Concrete Fracture Models and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. page 193–234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disaster Health.

Blog post
Andrew D. Spectacular “Fire Rainbows” Spotted Above South Carolina [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Preparing, Documenting, and Referencing Lotus Spreadsheets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haile MD. A mental health community outreach and education program for Eritrean immigrants: A grant proposal. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Kendrick Lamar Returns to No. 1. New York Times2017; :C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisaster Health
AbbreviationDisaster Health
ISSN (print)2166-5044
ISSN (online)2166-5052

Other styles