How to format your references using the Disaster Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disaster Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pusey PN. Physics. Brownian motion goes ballistic. Science 2011; 332:802–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sawamiphak S, Stainier DYR. Developmental biology: It takes muscle to make blood cells. Nature 2014; 512:257–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depew MJ, Lufkin T, Rubenstein JLR. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science 2002; 298:381–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pauly D, Alder J, Bennett E, Christensen V, Tyedmers P, Watson R. The future for fisheries. Science 2003; 302:1359–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiske JR, Fiske CA. The Big Book of Benefit Auctions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Pol LG. The Demography of Health and Healthcare: Third Edition. 3rd ed. 2013. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Garavaglia C, Breschi S. The Co-Evolution of Entrepreneurship and Clusters. In: Fratesi U, Senn L, editors. Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions: The Role of Internal and External Connections. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. page 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disaster Health.

Blog post
Luntz S. Towers Produce Clean Drinking Water From Thin Air. IFLScience2014;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson R. The effect of Interactive Metronome training on sports confidence and putting performance. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Apuzzo M. Some Who Are Part of Problem in Ferguson Are Asked to Be Part of Solution. New York Times2015; :A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisaster Health
AbbreviationDisaster Health
ISSN (print)2166-5044
ISSN (online)2166-5052

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