How to format your references using the Disaster Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disaster Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous P. Global warming could be bad news for Arctic ozone layer. Nature 2000; 404:531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucadamo G, Medlin DL. Geometric origin of hexagonal close packing at a grain boundary in gold. Science 2003; 300:1272–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jedema FJ, Filip AT, Van Wees BJ. Spintronics (Communication arising): Spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature 2002; 416:810.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pasqualucci L, Dominguez-Sola D, Chiarenza A, Fabbri G, Grunn A, Trifonov V, Kasper LH, Lerach S, Tang H, Ma J, et al. Inactivating mutations of acetyltransferase genes in B-cell lymphoma. Nature 2011; 471:189–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale J. The Seven Lost Secrets of Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Yona S, Stacey M, editors. Adhesion-GPCRs: Structure to Function. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Z-G. Organic Semiconductor Photovoltaic Materials. In: Li Y, editor. Organic Optoelectronic Materials. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 165–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disaster Health.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Create A Mind-Controlled Turtle. IFLScience2017;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Unmanaged Risks Threaten Success. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Connor CS. Measurement of Dispersion and Attenuation in Granular Media using a Filter-Correlation Method. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mashal M. Head of ISIS Branch in Afghanistan Killed in April Raid. New York Times2017; :A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisaster Health
AbbreviationDisaster Health
ISSN (print)2166-5044
ISSN (online)2166-5052

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