How to format your references using the Disaster and Military Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disaster and Military Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Onnela J-PJP. Physics. Flow of control in networks. Science. 2014;343:1325–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tseng GY, Ellenbogen JC. Nanotechnology. Toward nanocomputers. Science. 2001;294:1293–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Peters SE, Kelly DC, Fraass AJ. Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera. Nature. 2013;493:398–401.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hessels JWT, Ransom SM, Stairs IH, Freire PCC, Kaspi VM, Camilo F. A radio pulsar spinning at 716 Hz. Science. 2006;311:1901–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nova R. Soil Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Pan Z, Cheok AD, Müller W, Zhang X, Wong K, editors. Transactions on Edutainment IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ermolieva T, Ermoliev Y, Fischer G, Jonas M, Makowski M. Cost Effective and Environmentally Safe Emission Trading Under Uncertainty. In: Marti K, Ermoliev Y, Makowski M, editors. Coping with Uncertainty: Robust Solutions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 79–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disaster and Military Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Gene For Beak Size In Darwin’s Finches Identified [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Department of the Interior’s Computerized Resources Information Bank. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Jul. Report No.: EMD-78-17.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Egan GC. Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Machines. New York Times. 2017 Aug 8;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDisaster and Military Medicine
AbbreviationDisaster Mil. Med.
ISSN (online)2054-314X

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