How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Irion R. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome “Aperture Envy.” Science. 2000;289:32–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rowley DB, Currie BS. Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet. Nature. 2006;439:677–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Meng Y, Tanaka S, Poon C-S. Comment on “Universality in the evolution of orientation columns in the visual cortex.” Science. 2012;336:413; author reply 413.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. D’Auria G, Peris-Bondia F, Džunková M, Mira A, Collado MC, Latorre A, et al. Active and secreted IgA-coated bacterial fractions from the human gut reveal an under-represented microbiota core. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Qu D. Manufacturing and Managing Customer-Driven Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Chapple DG, editor. New Zealand Lizards. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Noll W. The Foundations of Mechanics. In: Grioli G, Truesdell C, editors. Non-linear Continuum Theories. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 159–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How the Natural World has Helped Influence Culture and Society. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Contract Payments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 May. Report No.: GAO-02-642R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fearrington ND. The relationship between fathers’ pre -natal involvement with the mother and post -natal involvement with the child(ren) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. You Only Turn 40 One Time. New York Times. 2017 Jan 9;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Med.
ISSN (online)1591-9528
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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