How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cowburn RP. Applied physics. Where have all the transistors gone? Science. 2006;311:183–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rubinoff D, Haines WP. Web-spinning caterpillar stalks snails. Science. 2005;309:575.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Son Y-W, Cohen ML, Louie SG. Half-metallic graphene nanoribbons. Nature. 2006;444:347–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gross C, Zhuang X, Stark K, Ramboz S, Oosting R, Kirby L, et al. Serotonin1A receptor acts during development to establish normal anxiety-like behaviour in the adult. Nature. 2002;416:396–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Petrucelli JR, Peters JR. Preventing Fraud and Mismanagement in Government. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Zschocke J, Gibson KM, Brown G, Morava E, Peters V, editors. JIMD Reports - Volume 12. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Basic N, Lipovac V, Lipovac A. Practical Analysis of xDR Based Signaling Network Performance and End-to-End QoS. In: Benlamri R, editor. Networked Digital Technologies: 4th International Conference, NDT 2012, Dubai, UAE, April 24-26, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 34–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. These Two Cheap Drugs Could Cut Breast Cancer Deaths [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/these-two-cheap-drugs-could-cut-breast-cancer-deaths/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. GAO Technology Readiness Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Evaluating the Readiness of Technology for Use in Acquisition Programs and Projects--Exposure Draft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Aug. Report No.: GAO-16-410G.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Randall MH. Information Technology Certification Programs and Perceptions of Attitude and Need by High School Principals, Information Technology Teachers, and Information Technology Professionals in Ohio [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yablonsky L. World’s Fastest Canvas. New York Times. 2010 Apr 25;ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Med.
ISSN (online)1591-9528
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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