How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Weissman J. Journal club. A biochemist looks at how DNA sequencing can reveal more than just sequences. Nature. 2009;461:1177.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lyons TW, Reinhard CT. Early Earth: Oxygen for heavy-metal fans. Nature. 2009;461:179–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mungall JE, Ames DE, Hanley JJ. Geochemical evidence from the Sudbury structure for crustal redistribution by large bolide impacts. Nature. 2004;429:546–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Thilker DA, Donovan J, Schiminovich D, Bianchi L, Boissier S, de Paz AG, et al. Massive star formation within the Leo “primordial” ring. Nature. 2009;457:990–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Higgs PG, Attwood TK. Bioinformatics and Molecular Evolution. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Garcia A, Choren R, Lucena C, Giorgini P, Holvoet T, Romanovsky A, editors. Software Engineering for Multi-Agent Systems IV: Research Issues and Practical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sarkiss M. Anesthesia for Interventional Bronchoscopic Procedures. In: Díaz-Jimenez JP, Rodriguez AN, editors. Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Pendulums Synchronize Due To Ticking Sound Pulses In Oddly Fascinating Experiment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Issues Related to Law School Accreditation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Mar. Report No.: GAO-07-314.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Okada T. Corporate culture and organizational efficiency in the competitive international market [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B, Mazzetti M, Schmitt E. Saudi King’s Son Plotted Effort to Oust His Rival. New York Times. 2017 Jul 19;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Med.
ISSN (online)1591-9528
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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