How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Martinson BC. Universities and the money fix. Nature. 2007;449:141–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ward WR, Canup RM. Forced resonant migration of Pluto’s outer satellites by Charon. Science. 2006;313:1107–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Garrick-Bethell I, Wisdom J, Zuber MT. Evidence for a past high-eccentricity lunar orbit. Science. 2006;313:652–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schwartz MW, Woods SC, Porte D Jr, Seeley RJ, Baskin DG. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature. 2000;404:661–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hartley J. Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Li D, editor. Computer And Computing Technologies In Agriculture, Volume II: First IFIP TC 12 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture (CCTA 2007), Wuyishan, China, August 18-20, 2007. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Salamon KS, Schwartz LA, Barakat LP. Resilience in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease and Cancer: Social Ecology Indicators of Health-Related Quality of Life. In: DeMichelis C, Ferrari M, editors. Child and Adolescent Resilience Within Medical Contexts: Integrating Research and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 77–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Giant Groundhog-Like Mammal Lived Among Dinosaurs [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/giant-groundhog-looking-mammal-lived-among-dinosaurs/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Transportation: Flexible Funding Within Federal Highway Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Aug. Report No.: RCED-97-233R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lazor DL. “Festen”: A celebration (of the imagination!) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2016 Oct 21;MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Med.
ISSN (online)1591-9528
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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