How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rees J. Complex disease and the new clinical sciences. Science. 2002;296:698–700.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Steiner L, Ploegh H. Herman Eisen (1918-2014). Nature. 2014;516:38.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Loewe L, Textor V, Scherer S. High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli. Science. 2003;302:1558–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen Y-Y, Hsieh C-Y, Jayakumar T, Lin K-H, Chou D-S, Lu W-J, et al. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Moskowitz HR, Porretta S, Silcher M. Concept Research in Food Product Design and Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
An edited book
1. Huang GQ, Mak KL, Maropoulos PG, editors. Proceedings of the 6th CIRP-Sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Towson JEC, Eberl S. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry in PET and PET/CT. In: Valk PE, Delbeke D, Bailey DL, Townsend DW, Maisey MN, editors. Positron Emission Tomography: Clinical Practice. London: Springer; 2006. p. 41–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Cassini Captures Gorgeous Shots Of Two Moons Peeking Through Saturn’s Rings [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Lewis Research Center Attempts To Procure Suitable Wind Turbine Rotor Blades. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Nov. Report No.: PSAD-81-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thompson K. Paid formal caregivers and caregiver burden: A quantitative study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Takes Up 2 Cases Challenging Powers of U.S. Regulators to Protect Wetlands. New York Times. 2005 Oct 12;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Med.
ISSN (online)1591-9528
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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