How to format your references using the Digital Chinese Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Chinese Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.L. Mueller, Innate immunity. Recognizing the first responders. Introduction, Science. 327 (2010) 283.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Withers, G.A. Neumann, Enigmatic northern plains of Mars, Nature. 410 (2001) 651.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.D. Kolodner, D.W. Cleveland, C.D. Putnam, Cancer. Aneuploidy drives a mutator phenotype in cancer, Science. 333 (2011) 942–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Carreiras, M.L. Seghier, S. Baquero, A. Estévez, A. Lozano, J.T. Devlin, C.J. Price, An anatomical signature for literacy, Nature. 461 (2009) 983–986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-J. Hartfuß, T. Geist, Fusion Plasma Diagnostics with mm-Waves, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
H. Thorpe, R. Olive, eds., Women in Action Sport Cultures: Identity, Politics and Experience, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Marcon, M. Mancin, Empirical Evidence on Current Integrated Reporting Practices, in: C. Mio (Ed.), Integrated Reporting: A New Accounting Disclosure, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Chinese Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch The Test Flight Launch of the Deep-Space Orion Spacecraft, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Food and Drug Administration’s Investigation of Defective Cardiac Pacemakers Recalled by the General Electric Company, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Tom, Impact on achievement with ST math after school instruction, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, She’s Doomed, but No One Is Blameless, New York Times. (2017) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Chinese Medicine
ISSN (print)2589-3777

Other styles