How to format your references using the Digital Chinese Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Chinese Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Wood, Obituary: Alastair Cameron (1925-2005), Nature. 438 (2005) 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.-L. Brédas, R. Silbey, Chemistry. Excitons surf along conjugated polymer chains, Science. 323 (2009) 348–349.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.V. Sobolev, A.W. Hofmann, I.K. Nikogosian, Recycled oceanic crust observed in “ghost plagioclase” within the source of Mauna Loa lavas, Nature. 404 (2000) 986–990.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.F. Robinson, J.F. Adkins, L.D. Keigwin, J. Southon, D.P. Fernandez, S.-L. Wang, D.S. Scheirer, Radiocarbon variability in the western North Atlantic during the last deglaciation, Science. 310 (2005) 1469–1473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Burton, Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
H. Yamazaki, ed., Fifty Years of Cytochrome P450 Research, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
P.G. Kirchschlaeger, To What Extent Should the State Protect Human Beings from Themselves?, in: K. Mathis, A. Tor (Eds.), Nudging - Possibilities, Limitations and Applications in European Law and Economics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Chinese Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, These GIFs Of MRI Scans of Produce are Completely Amazing, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA 5-Year Planning, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Swan, Arts participation and career preparedness: A pragmatic approach to assessing arts benefits, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, Iran and Saudis Trade Barbs With Pilgrimage Set to Start, New York Times. (2016) A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Chinese Medicine
ISSN (print)2589-3777

Other styles