How to format your references using the Digestive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Armitage PJ: Astronomy. A trap for planet formation. Science 2013;340:1179–1180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castaneda J, Matzuk MM: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY. Toward a rapid and reversible male pill. Science 2015;350:385–386.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Zhou Z, Wang X: The smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. Nature 2000;408:705–708.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Young L, Kanter EP, Krässig B, Li Y, March AM, Pratt ST, et al.: Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays. Nature 2010;466:56–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGeough JA: The Engineering of Human Joint Replacements. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Kim-Prieto C (ed): Religion and Spirituality Across Cultures. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Surasarang SH, Williams RO: Co-solvent and Complexation Systems; in Williams RO III, Watts AB, Miller DA (eds): Formulating Poorly Water Soluble Drugs. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 215–256.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S: Green Light Could Help With Migraines. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security: Federal Air Marshal Service Has Taken Actions to Fulfill Its Core Mission and Address Workforce Issues, but Additional Actions Are Needed to Improve Workforce Survey. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medlej M: Assessing the Probability of Prototyping Success in Systems Acquisitions (APOPS) 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M: Trump Treads Into Feud Between Qatar and Saudis. New York Times 2017;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Surgery
AbbreviationDig. Surg.
ISSN (print)0253-4886
ISSN (online)1421-9883

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