How to format your references using the Digestive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Fields S. Molecular biology. Site-seeing by sequencing. Science. 2007 Jun;316(5830):1441–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Ticozzi F, Viola L. Quantum resources for purification and cooling: fundamental limits and opportunities. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun;4:5192.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Lin X, Fauqué B, Behnia K. SOLID-STATE PHYSICS. Scalable T2 resistivity in a small single-component Fermi surface. Science. 2015 Aug;349(6251):945–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Rao F, Ding K, Zhou Y, Zheng Y, Xia M, Lv S, et al. Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing. Science. 2017 Dec;358(6369):1423–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Raheja DG, Allocco M. Assurance Technologies Principles and Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1
Husemöller D. Basic Bundle Theory and K-Cohomology Invariants: With contributions by Siegfried Echterhoff, Stefan Fredenhagen and Bernhard Krötz. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Haslinger EN, Lopez-Herrejon RE, Egyed A. On Extracting Feature Models from Sets of Valid Feature Combinations. In: Cortellessa V, Varró D, editors. Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering: 16th International Conference, FASE 2013, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2013, Rome, Italy, March 16-24, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013; pp 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Surgery.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Russia Threatens to Ban US Access to ISS In Retaliation To Sanctions [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/russia-threatens-ban-us-access-iss-retaliation-sanctions/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA Faces Challenges in Its Attempt to Achieve Planned Flight Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
LaPoint JL. The effects of aviation -based error management training on perioperative safety attitudes. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Greenhouse L. Court Allows Suit Against Drug Maker. New York Times. 2008 Mar;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Surgery
AbbreviationDig. Surg.
ISSN (print)0253-4886
ISSN (online)1421-9883
ScopeGastroenterology
Surgery

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