How to format your references using the Digestive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roos DS. Genetics. Themes and variations in apicomplexan parasite biology. Science. 2005 Jul;309(5731):72–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lister AM, Sher AV. The origin and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Science. 2001 Nov;294(5544):1094–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marusic I, Mathis R, Hutchins N. Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow. Science. 2010 Jul;329(5988):193–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Long JA, Young GC, Holland T, Senden TJ, Fitzgerald EMG. An exceptional Devonian fish from Australia sheds light on tetrapod origins. Nature. 2006 Nov;444(7116):199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Maunder RG, Wang J, Yang L-L. Near-Capacity Variable-Length Coding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Gawrock D, Reimer H, Sadeghi A-R, Vishik C, editors. Future of Trust in Computing: Proceedings of the First International Conference Future of Trust in Computing 2008. Wiesbaden: Vieweg+Teubner; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Pericàs M, Cristal A, González R, Jiménez DA, Valero M. Exploiting Execution Locality with a Decoupled Kilo-Instruction Processor. In: Labarta J, Joe K, Sato T, editors. High-Performance Computing: 6th International Symposium, ISHPC 2005, Nara, Japan, September 7-9, 2005, First International Workshop on Advanced Low Power Systems, ALPS 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008; pp 56–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. We Can Limit Global Warming To 1.5°C If We Do These Things In The Next Ten Years [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Polar Satellites: Agencies Need to Address Potential Gaps in Weather and Climate Data Coverage. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Otarola AC. The effects of turbulence in an absorbing atmosphere on the propagation of microwave signals used in an active sounding system. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. Demands That Change DNA. New York Times. 2017 May;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Surgery
AbbreviationDig. Surg.
ISSN (print)0253-4886
ISSN (online)1421-9883

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