How to format your references using the Digestive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Check E. Biomedical funding remains flat. Nature. 2006 Feb;439(7077):644.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Buesseler KO, Boyd PW. Climate change. Will ocean fertilization work? Science. 2003 Apr;300(5616):67–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Childs AM, Gosset D, Webb Z. Universal computation by multiparticle quantum walk. Science. 2013 Feb;339(6121):791–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Long JA, Trinajstic K, Young GC, Senden T. Live birth in the Devonian period. Nature. 2008 May;453(7195):650–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Ponniah P. Data Warehousing Fundamentals for it Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1
Kaukua J, Ekenberg T, editors. Subjectivity and Selfhood in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Beach SA, Newsted JL, Coady K, Giesy JP. Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). In: Albert LA, Voogt P de, Gerba CP, Hutzinger O, Knaak JB, Mayer FL, et al., editors. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: Continuation of Residue Reviews. New York, NY: Springer; 2006; pp 133–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Surgery.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Study Finds Gamers Have Greater Cognitive Function And More Grey Matter [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Apr [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/expert-gamers-show-greater-cognitive-function-their-amateur-counterparts/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Northeast Rail Corridor: Information on Users, Funding Sources, and Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Masuyama G. The Bird Is A Word. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Crow K. When Windows on a Building Become Windows of the Soul. New York Times. 2002 Nov;148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Surgery
AbbreviationDig. Surg.
ISSN (print)0253-4886
ISSN (online)1421-9883
ScopeGastroenterology
Surgery

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