How to format your references using the Journal of Shipping and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shipping and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lundstrom M (2003) Applied physics. Moore’s law forever? Science 299:210–211
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith G, Smolin JA (2013) An exactly solvable model for quantum communications. Nature 504:263–267
A journal article with 3 authors
Sorenson MD, Sefc KM, Payne RB (2003) Speciation by host switch in brood parasitic indigobirds. Nature 424:928–931
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Uchida K, Takahashi S, Harii K, et al (2008) Observation of the spin Seebeck effect. Nature 455:778–781

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavetski EJ (2009) Managing Hedge Fund Managers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Akella S, Amato NM, Huang WH, Mishra B (eds) (2008) Algorithmic Foundation of Robotics VII: Selected Contributions of the Seventh International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Gao Z-K, Jin N-D, Wang W-X (2014) Nonlinear Dynamics in Fluid Dynamic Complex Network. In: Jin N-D, Wang W-X (eds) Nonlinear Analysis of Gas-Water/Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in Complex Networks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shipping and Trade.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Joy To The World: An Ode To Outer Space At Christmas. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) FCC: Flexible Service Offerings in the Commercial Mobile Radio Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber JS (2016) Discursive constructions of decline: Narratives of illness and financial stress among residents in assisted living. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe Z, Tommasini A, Allen D, Oestreich JR (2016) Beautiful Music to Their Ears. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lundstrom 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lundstrom 2003; Smith and Smolin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Smolin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Uchida et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shipping and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Shipp. Trade
ISSN (online)2364-4575

Other styles