How to format your references using the Journal of Shipping and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shipping and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cheke RA (2007) Ecology. Thinking long term. Science 318:577–578
A journal article with 2 authors
Satheesh SK, Ramanathan V V (2000) Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth’s surface. Nature 405:60–63
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu M, Kang H, Li X (2014) Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam. Sci Rep 4:3627
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hayward MA, Cussen EJ, Claridge JB, et al (2002) The hydride anion in an extended transition metal oxide array: LaSrCoO3H0.7. Science 295:1882–1884

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baher H (2012) Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kühn O, Wöste L (eds) (2007) Analysis and Control of Ultrafast Photoinduced Reactions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Choi S, Kim IC (2013) Homogenization with oscillatory Neumann boundary data in general domain. In: Chambolle A, Novaga M, Valdinoci E (eds) Geometric Partial Differential Equations proceedings. Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, pp 105–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shipping and Trade.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) Growing Up Without Siblings May Affect Your Brain’s Development. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Nonimmigrant Visa Processing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liburd-Shaddai JL (2012) The experiences of remedial instructors at one urban community college: A case study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Ruling Helps Prosecutors In Death Penalty Cases. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cheke 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Satheesh and Ramanathan 2000; Cheke 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Satheesh and Ramanathan 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Hayward et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shipping and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Shipp. Trade
ISSN (online)2364-4575

Other styles