How to format your references using the Journal of Shipping and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shipping and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards PN (2004) Beyond the ivory tower. “A vast machine”: standards as social technology. Science 304:827–828
A journal article with 2 authors
Pfisterer AB, Schmid B (2002) Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning. Nature 416:84–86
A journal article with 3 authors
Marteau TM, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC (2012) Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science 337:1492–1495
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Olsen B, Munster VJ, Wallensten A, et al (2006) Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds. Science 312:384–388

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kelsey JE, Newport DJ, Nemeroff CB (2006) Principles of Psychopharmacology for Mental Health Professionals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Delcour AH (ed) (2015) Electrophysiology of Unconventional Channels and Pores, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Wiederhold BK, Bouchard S (2014) Arachnophobia and Fear of Other Insects: Efficacy and Lessons Learned from Treatment Process. In: Bouchard S (ed) Advances in Virtual Reality and Anxiety Disorders. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 91–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shipping and Trade.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Research Shows How To Trap Cancer By Turning Your Body Against The Tumour. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Efforts to Strengthen the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weisko P (2017) Wading Tiger Swimming Dragon: A Study on Comparative Indo-Sino Naval Development. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B (2017) Prudence or Power Grab? Cuomo Adds Troopers to New York City. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Pfisterer and Schmid 2002; Edwards 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pfisterer and Schmid 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Olsen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shipping and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Shipp. Trade
ISSN (online)2364-4575

Other styles