How to format your references using the Journal of Shipping and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shipping and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solomon SC (2007) Planetary science. Hot news on Mercury’s core. Science 316:702–703
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones W, Klin A (2013) Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism. Nature 504:427–431
A journal article with 3 authors
Aitkaliyeva A, Chen D, Shao L (2013) Phonon transport assisted by inter-tube carbon displacements in carbon nanotube mats. Sci Rep 3:2774
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jean-Baptiste P, Petit JR, Lipenkov VY, et al (2001) Constraints on hydrothermal processes and water exchange in Lake Vostok from helium isotopes. Nature 411:460–462

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koperski J (2014) The Physics of Theism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sandercock L, Attili G (eds) (2010) Multimedia Explorations in Urban Policy and Planning: Beyond the Flatlands. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Shabtai A, Elovici Y, Rokach L (2012) Data Leakage Detection/Prevention Solutions. In: Elovici Y, Rokach L (eds) A Survey of Data Leakage Detection and Prevention Solutions. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 17–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shipping and Trade.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Mouse vs. Scorpion- Who Do You Think Wins? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) High-Containment Laboratories: Recent Incidents of Biosafety Lapses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marjanovic SY (2016) The Role of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein in Regulating T Cell Programmed Cell Death Mechanisms and Implications for Autoimmunity in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilton N (2013) All Is Fair in Love and Twitter. New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solomon 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Solomon 2007; Jones and Klin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Klin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jean-Baptiste et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shipping and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Shipp. Trade
ISSN (online)2364-4575

Other styles