How to format your references using the Journal of Shipping and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shipping and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2002) Blurred vision. Nature 420:A19, A21, A23
A journal article with 2 authors
Osterholm MT, Henderson DA (2012) Public health and biosecurity. Life sciences at a crossroads: respiratory transmissible H5N1. Science 335:801–802
A journal article with 3 authors
Pullium JK, Roble GS, Raymond MA (2014) Emergency planning: Be prepared. Nature 514:430
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Najiminaini M, Vasefi F, Kaminska B, Carson JJL (2013) Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging. Sci Rep 3:2589

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schaik CPV (2015) The Primate Origins of Human Nature. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Noubir G, Raynal M (eds) (2014) Networked Systems: Second International Conference, NETYS 2014, Marrakech, Morocco, May 15-17, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Madden B (2015) Putting It All Together. In: Madden B (ed) Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 171–176

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shipping and Trade.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Help Kickstart More Science On The Most Mysterious Star In The Galaxy. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Career and Technical Education: Surveys to State Directors of Career and Technical Education (GAO-09-737SP, July 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-683. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosenberg EL (2010) Learning to live: The clinical importance of first-person accounts of recovery from anorexia nervosa. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L (2017) Election Influence, Separate and Unequal. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Osterholm and Henderson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Osterholm and Henderson 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Najiminaini et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shipping and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Shipp. Trade
ISSN (online)2364-4575

Other styles