How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JM. Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep. Nature. 2005 Oct 27;437(7063):1264–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
Altshuler JS, Altshuler D. Organizational challenges in clinical genomic research. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):478–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worrell BT, Malik JA, Fokin VV. Direct evidence of a dinuclear copper intermediate in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Science. 2013 Apr 26;340(6131):457–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luzio A, Criante L, D’Innocenzo V, Caironi M. Control of charge transport in a semiconducting copolymer by solvent-induced long-range order. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 5;3:3425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Modarres M, Amiri M, Jackson C. Probabilistic Physics of Failure Approach to Reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Schütze O, Coello Coello CA, Tantar A-A, Tantar E, Bouvry P, Del Moral P, et al., editors. EVOLVE - A Bridge between Probability, Set Oriented Numerics, and Evolutionary Computation II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XXIV, 508 p. 152 illus. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; vol. 175).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhong N. Ways to Develop Human-Level Web Intelligence: A Brain Informatics Perspective. In: Franconi E, Kifer M, May W, editors. The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: 4th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, June 3-7, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 27–36. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada.

Blog post
Davis J. New Drug Helps Reverse Aging In Mice. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA Faces Challenges in Its Attempt to Achieve Planned Flight Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Dec. Report No.: NSIAD-92-32.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier TH. Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. For Now, and Possibly This Year, Talk of a Vacancy on the Court Appears to Be Mere Talk. New York Times. 2005 Oct 28;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada
ISSN (print)1925-6515
ISSN (online)1925-6523

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