How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Buzsáki G. Neuroscience. Similar is different in hippocampal networks. Science. 2005 Jul 22;309(5734):568–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Katz A, Davis ME. Molecular imprinting of bulk, microporous silica. Nature. 2000 Jan 20;403(6767):286–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chuck AL, Turner SM, Liss PS. Direct evidence for a marine source of C1 and C2 alkyl nitrates. Science. 2002 Aug 16;297(5584):1151–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Okajima T, Xu A, Lei L, Irvine KD. Chaperone activity of protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 promotes notch receptor folding. Science. 2005 Mar 11;307(5715):1599–603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Graham L. Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Aldini A. A Process Algebraic Approach to Software Architecture Design. Bernardo M, Corradini F, editors. London: Springer; 2010. XV, 304 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bünger M. Information and Imagination: How Lux Research Forecasts. In: Fisher E, Selin C, Wetmore JM, editors. Presenting Futures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Genes From Ancient Hominids May Have Helped Inuits Adapt To The Cold [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/genes-from-ancient-hominids-may-have-helped-inuits-adapt-to-the-cold/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area Plan: Fiscal Years 1995-96. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Sep. Report No.: IAP-95-96.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Darvish H. Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Barron J. In a Move Away From Tradition, Cremations Increase. New York Times. 2017 Aug 10;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada
ISSN (print)1925-6515
ISSN (online)1925-6523
Scope

Other styles