How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rutter GA. Cell biology. Pancreas micromanages autophagy. Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):826–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Suenaga K, Koshino M. Atom-by-atom spectroscopy at graphene edge. Nature. 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1088–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Torsvik V, Øvreås L, Thingstad TF. Prokaryotic diversity--magnitude, dynamics, and controlling factors. Science. 2002 May 10;296(5570):1064–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cino EA, Killoran RC, Karttunen M, Choy WY. Binding of disordered proteins to a protein hub. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkat S, Baird S. Liquidity Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Tanaka K, Berto F, Mares E, Paoli F, editors. Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. VIII, 383 p. 31 illus. (Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science; vol. 26).
A chapter in an edited book
Meganck S, Leray P, Manderick B. Causal Graphical Models with Latent Variables: Learning and Inference. In: Mellouli K, editor. Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty: 9th European Conference, ECSQARU 2007, Hammamet, Tunisia, October 31 - November 2, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 5–16. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada.

Blog post
Andrews R. Controversial GM Food Labeling Bill Approved By US Senate [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Russian Compliance With Safety Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-00-128.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rees CL. A systems-level investigation into the genetic determinants of childhood-onset schizophrenia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 14,000 Sq. Ft., Shady Past, All for Just $8.3 Million. New York Times. 2007 Apr 1;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada
ISSN (print)1925-6515
ISSN (online)1925-6523

Other styles