How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roll-Mecak A. Botany. Shining light at microtubule crossroads. Science. 2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korber B, Gnanakaran S. AIDS/HIV. Converging on an HIV vaccine. Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1589–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakamaki T, Suzuki A, Ohtani E. Stability of hydrous melt at the base of the Earth’s upper mantle. Nature. 2006 Jan 12;439(7073):192–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen WG, Chang Q, Lin Y, Meissner A, West AE, Griffith EC, et al. Derepression of BDNF transcription involves calcium-dependent phosphorylation of MeCP2. Science. 2003 Oct 31;302(5646):885–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dauphiné A. Fractal Geography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2012.
An edited book
Christianson B, Malcolm J, Stajano F, Anderson J, Bonneau J, editors. Security Protocols XXI: 21st International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, March 19-20, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. X, 267 p. 23 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8263).
A chapter in an edited book
Klemas VV. Remote Sensing of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation. In: Finkl CW, Makowski C, editors. Seafloor Mapping along Continental Shelves: Research and Techniques for Visualizing Benthic Environments. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 125–40. (Coastal Research Library).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada.

Blog post
Fang J. Earliest Fossil Traces of Life Questioned [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Uncertainties and Challenges Face FAA’s Advanced Automated System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-93-30.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee BK. Tracking of truck flows for drayage efficiency analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Irish Inspiration; French Twists. New York Times. 2010 May 9;NJ16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Diseases in Canada
ISSN (print)1925-6515
ISSN (online)1925-6523

Other styles