How to format your references using the IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. R. Brown, “Climate science: El Niño’s variable history,” Nature, vol. 515, no. 7528, pp. 494–495, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Glass and M. Girvan, “Annotation enrichment analysis: an alternative method for evaluating the functional properties of gene sets,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4191, Feb. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Chen, K. L. Dürr, and E. Gouaux, “X-ray structures of AMPA receptor-cone snail toxin complexes illuminate activation mechanism,” Science, vol. 345, no. 6200, pp. 1021–1026, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Xue, Z. Luo, P. Li, Y. Ding, Y. Cui, and Q. Wu, “A residue-free green synergistic antifungal nanotechnology for pesticide thiram by ZnO nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5408, Jul. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Chin, D. Nel, and S. Ólafsson, Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
P. Dario and R. Chatila, Eds., Robotics Research. The Eleventh International Symposium: With 303 Figures, vol. 15. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Karimou and J. F. Myoupo, “Randomized Permutation Routing in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks with Unknown Destinations,” in Ad-Hoc Networking: IFIP 19th World Computer Congress, TC-6, IFIP Interactive Conference on Ad-Hoc Networking, August 20–25, 2006, Santiago, Chile, K. A. Agha, Ed. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006, pp. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “NASA Will Be Making A Big Announcement On Tuesday,” IFLScience, May 07, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Department of Education: Multiple, Nonintegrated Systems Hamper Management of Student Financial Aid Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-HEHS/AIMD-97-132, May 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. E. Lavin, “Discourse in monolingual and bilingual non-trial hearings,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, “Rangers Unearth Vigor in a Clinching Win,” New York Times, p. SP7, Apr. 23, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.
ISSN (print)1531-1309
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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