How to format your references using the IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. L. Ellsworth, “Injection-induced earthquakes,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6142, p. 1225942, Jul. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Shapira and J. Wang, “Follow the money,” Nature, vol. 468, no. 7324, pp. 627–628, Dec. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. S. Esposito, P. Capelli, and S. Arber, “Brainstem nucleus MdV mediates skilled forelimb motor tasks,” Nature, vol. 508, no. 7496, pp. 351–356, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Chang et al., “Tracking X-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1304, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. H. Gerardi, Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.
An edited book
Y. Li, Ed., Organic Optoelectronic Materials, vol. 91. in Lecture Notes in Chemistry, vol. 91. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Pardoux and A. Răşcanu, “Backward Stochastic Differential Equations,” in Stochastic Differential Equations, Backward SDEs, Partial Differential Equations, A. Rӑşcanu, Ed., in Stochastic Modelling and Applied Probability. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 353–515.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Two-Headed Dolphin Washes Up On Turkish Beach,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Mission Support Project: Analyzing User Requirements for Assignment Management Tasks,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, OIMC-92-3, Jul. 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. N. Baker, “The Impact of Undergraduate Research Participation on Research Self-Efficacy,” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, “‘The Only Girl in the Building,’” New York Times, p. AR8, Oct. 06, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.
ISSN (print)1531-1309
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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