How to format your references using the Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kacprzak, G. G. (2011). Astronomy. The pristine universe. Science 334, 1216–1217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parkes, D. C. and Wellman, M. P. (2015). Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence. Science 349, 267–272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, B., Moore, J. S. and Beebe, D. J. (2001). Surface-directed liquid flow inside microchannels. Science 291, 1023–1026.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Naveilhan, P., Hassani, H., Lucas, G., Blakeman, K. H., Hao, J. X., Xu, X. J., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., Thorén, P. and Ernfors, P. (2001). Reduced antinociception and plasma extravasation in mice lacking a neuropeptide Y receptor. Nature 409, 513–517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shaw, M. T. (2011). Introduction to Polymer Rheology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brat, G., Rungta, N. and Venet, A. eds. (2013). NASA Formal Methods: 5th International Symposium, NFM 2013, Moffett Field, CA, USA, May 14-16, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benjamas, N. and Uthayopas, P. (2009). An Impact of Scheduling Strategy to Parallel FI-Growth Data Mining Algorithm. In Advances in Information Technology: Third International Conference, IAIT 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009. Proceedings (ed. Papasratorn, B.), Chutimaskul, W.), Porkaew, K.), and Vanijja, V.), pp. 39–47. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016). To Fight Zika, Let’s Genetically Modify Mosquitoes – The Old-Fashioned Way. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Questions for the Record Related to Amtrak’s Food and Beverage Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, A. M. (2010). Assessing the demand for simplified stormwater modeling tools within the design profession to facilitate the adoption of sustainable stormwater practices.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. (2014). From Colonial India, Lessons for a Changed Economy. New York Times BU4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kacprzak, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kacprzak, 2011; Parkes and Wellman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parkes and Wellman, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Naveilhan et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment
ISSN (print)0950-1991
ISSN (online)1477-9129
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles