How to format your references using the Development and Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development and Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciochon, R.L. (2009) ‘The Mystery Ape of Pleistocene Asia’, Nature 459(7249): 910–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lopes, I. and J. Silk (2010) ‘Neutrino Spectroscopy Can Probe the Dark Matter Content in the Sun’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 330(6003): 462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn, E.W., L.B. Aknin, and M.I. Norton (2008) ‘Spending Money on Others Promotes Happiness’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 319(5870): 1687–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hommelsheim, C.M., L. Frantzeskakis, M. Huang, and B. Ülker (2014) ‘PCR Amplification of Repetitive DNA: A Limitation to Genome Editing Technologies and Many Other Applications’, Scientific Reports 4: 5052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari, S. (2013) Structural Dynamic Analysis with Generalized Damping Models. Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Calude, C.S., J.F. Costa, N. Dershowitz, E. Freire, and G. Rozenberg (eds) (2009) Unconventional Computation: 8th International Conference, UC 2009, Ponta Delgada, Portugal, September 7-11, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 5715). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Khamadieva, A. (2015) ‘Development of a Methodology for Measuring the Residents’ Utility Within Place Marketing’, in S. Zenker and B.P. Jacobsen (eds) Inter-Regional Place Branding: Best Practices, Challenges and Solutions, pp. 51–61. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development and Change.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, July 4) ‘Swirling Cool Jet Reveals A Growing Black Hole’, IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Department of Education: Monitoring of State Formula Grants by Office of Special Education Programs ( No. HRD-91-91FS).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gatti, D.M. (2010) ‘Genome-Wide Analysis of Transcriptional Regulation in the Murine Liver’. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. and A. Goodnough (2011, July 12) ‘Edging Toward Default’, New York Times: B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ciochon, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ciochon, 2009; Lopes and Silk, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lopes and Silk, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hommelsheim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment and Change
AbbreviationDev. Change
ISSN (online)1467-7660

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