How to format your references using the Development and Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development and Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2007) ‘Back to School’, Nature 446(7137): 714.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nath, D. and S. Shadan (2009) ‘The Ubiquitin System’, Nature 458(7237): 421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yanoviak, S.P., R. Dudley, and M. Kaspari (2005) ‘Directed Aerial Descent in Canopy Ants’, Nature 433(7026): 624–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kimizuka, H., S. Kurokawa, A. Yamaguchi, A. Sakai, and S. Ogata (2014) ‘Two-Dimensional Ordering of Solute Nanoclusters at a Close-Packed Stacking Fault: Modeling and Experimental Analysis’, Scientific Reports 4: 7318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Q.K. (2005) Power Distribution Network Design For VLSI. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peer, S. and H. Gruber (eds) (2013) Atlas of Peripheral Nerve Ultrasound: With Anatomic and MRI Correlation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gąsieniec, L., D.D. Hamilton, R. Martin, and P.G. Spirakis (2015) ‘The Match-Maker: Constant-Space Distributed Majority via Random Walks’, in A. Pelc and A.A. Schwarzmann (eds) Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 17th International Symposium, SSS 2015, Edmonton, AB, Canada, August 18-21, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 67–80. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development and Change.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, November 5) ‘Man Told He Has “30 Minutes To Live” After Doctors Discover Tapeworm In His Brain’, IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Social Security Numbers: Internet Resellers Provide Few Full SSNs, but Congress Should Consider Enacting Standards for Truncating SSNs ( No. GAO-06-495).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds, P.R. (2004) ‘Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia’. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. and B. Barnes (2017, June 19) ‘A Lavish Emmy Campaign’, New York Times: B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2007; Nath and Shadan, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nath and Shadan, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kimizuka et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment and Change
AbbreviationDev. Change
ISSN (online)1467-7660

Other styles