How to format your references using the Development and Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development and Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richter, L.M. (2006) ‘Studying Adolescence’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5782): 1902–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liechti, R. and E.E. Farmer (2002) ‘The Jasmonate Pathway’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5573): 1649–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailes, F., R.T. Dean, and M.T. Pearce (2013) ‘Music Cognition as Mental Time Travel’, Scientific Reports 3: 2690.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tarnopolsky, A. et al. (2005) ‘Acoustics: The Vocal Tract and the Sound of a Didgeridoo’, Nature 436(7047): 39.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartley, T. (2011) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Cancer. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sicilia, M.-A., C. Kop, and F. Sartori (eds) (2010) Ontology, Conceptualization and Epistemology for Information Systems, Software Engineering and Service Science: 4th International Workshop, ONTOSE 2010, Held at CAiSE 2010, Hammamet, Tunisia, June 7-8, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (Vol. 62). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Berger, A., M. Grimmer, and M. Müller-Hannemann (2010) ‘Fully Dynamic Speed-Up Techniques for Multi-Criteria Shortest Path Searches in Time-Dependent Networks’, in P. Festa (ed.) Experimental Algorithms: 9th International Symposium, SEA 2010, Ischia Island, Naples, Italy, May 20-22, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 35–46. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development and Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 30) ‘This Alloy Can Withstand 10 Million Transformations’, IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Telecommunications: Issues Related to Federal Funding for Public Television by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting ( No. GAO-04-284).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aloe-Chase, S.T. (2008) ‘Family Member Perspectives on Collaboration: An Exploratory Study’. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mark, M.E. (2012, April 1) ‘Prom Night’, New York Times: SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richter, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Liechti and Farmer, 2002; Richter, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liechti and Farmer, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Tarnopolsky et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment and Change
AbbreviationDev. Change
ISSN (online)1467-7660

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