How to format your references using the Development and Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development and Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisk, Z. (2009) ‘Physics The Thermodynamics of Quantum Critical Points’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 325(5946): 1348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X. and J. Chory (2006) ‘Brassinosteroids Regulate Dissociation of BKI1, a Negative Regulator of BRI1 Signaling, from the Plasma Membrane’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5790): 1118–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krishnamurthy, H., C.L. Piscitelli, and E. Gouaux (2009) ‘Unlocking the Molecular Secrets of Sodium-Coupled Transporters’, Nature 459(7245): 347–55.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Glover, J.D. et al. (2010) ‘Agriculture Increased Food and Ecosystem Security via Perennial Grains’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 328(5986): 1638–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G. (2013) Coal-Fired Power Generation Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
INDERJIT and K.G. Mukerji (eds) (2006) Allelochemicals: Biological Control of Plant Pathogens and Diseases, Disease Management of Fruits and Vegetables (Vol. 2). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hajibagheri, A., G. Sukthankar, and K. Lakkaraju (2016) ‘A Holistic Approach for Link Prediction in Multiplex Networks’, in E. Spiro and Y.-Y. Ahn (eds) Social Informatics: 8th International Conference, SocInfo 2016, Bellevue, WA, USA, November 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 55–70. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development and Change.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, June 18) ‘How Much Radiation Damage Do Astronauts Really Suffer In Space?’, IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Social Security Administration: Effective Planning and Management Practices Are Key to Overcoming IT Modernization Challenges ( No. GAO-16-815T).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington, S. (2010) ‘Counseling Students Ability to Diagnose Asperger’s Syndrome’. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, October 1) ‘At the Stadium, a Parade of Respect’, New York Times: D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fisk, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Fisk, 2009; Wang and Chory, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Chory, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Glover et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment and Change
AbbreviationDev. Change
ISSN (online)1467-7660

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