How to format your references using the Development and Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development and Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabry, V.J. (2008) ‘Ocean Science Marine Calcifiers in a High-CO2 Ocean’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 320(5879): 1020–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turchyn, A.V. and D.P. Schrag (2004) ‘Oxygen Isotope Constraints on the Sulfur Cycle over the Past 10 Million Years’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 303(5666): 2004–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prochaska, J.X., J.C. Howk, and A.M. Wolfe (2003) ‘The Elemental Abundance Pattern in a Galaxy at z = 2626’, Nature 423(6935): 57–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gomes, K.K. et al. (2007) ‘Visualizing Pair Formation on the Atomic Scale in the High-Tc Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta’, Nature 447(7144): 569–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1998) Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Swapna, M. (2012) Molecular Marker Applications for Improving Sugar Content in Sugarcane, (S. Srivastava, ed.)SpringerBriefs in Plant Science. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Wyche, K.P. et al. (2008) ‘Atmospheric Monitoring With Chemical Ionisation Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) and Future Developments: Hadamard Transform Mass Spectrometry’, in Y.J. Kim and U. Platt (eds) Advanced Environmental Monitoring, pp. 64–76. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development and Change.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, June 18) ‘Skyscraper-Sized Sculptures Carved Beneath Greenland’s Ice Sheet’, IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Cost Recovery Practices Inconsistent With Government Policy ( No. GGD-83-61).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalavacherla, R.S. (2017) ‘DFT Study of the Improved Performance of Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Gold-Copper Alloy in a PEM Fuel Cell’. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, March 26) ‘Bedeviled by an Elbow, but Blessed With Arms’, New York Times: D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fabry, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fabry, 2008; Turchyn and Schrag, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turchyn and Schrag, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gomes et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment and Change
AbbreviationDev. Change
ISSN (online)1467-7660

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