How to format your references using the Development and Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development and Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brydson, R. (2014) ‘Materials Analysis: Good Vibrations’, Nature 514(7521): 177–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rizzoli, S.O. and W.J. Betz (2004) ‘The Structural Organization of the Readily Releasable Pool of Synaptic Vesicles’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 303(5666): 2037–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kippenberg, T.J., R. Holzwarth, and S.A. Diddams (2011) ‘Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 332(6029): 555–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barthelemy, M., P. Bordin, H. Berestycki, and M. Gribaudi (2013) ‘Self-Organization versus Top-down Planning in the Evolution of a City’, Scientific Reports 3: 2153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey, S.B. (2010) The Profitable Hobby Farm. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Kurosaki, T. and J. Wienands (eds) (2016) B Cell Receptor Signaling, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology (1st ed. 2016., Vol. 393). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sekine, Y. (2006) ‘Informed Consent’, in K. Sugano et al. (eds) Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice, pp. 15–8. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development and Change.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 18) ‘Strange Hallucinations Seem To Be Spreading In A US Hospital’, IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Commercial Space Launches: FAA Needs Continued Planning and Monitoring to Oversee the Safety of the Emerging Space Tourism Industry ( No. GAO-07-16).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garibay, O. (2017) ‘Towards a Hybrid Approach to Mariachi Education - Bridging the Gap between Formal and Informal Transmission of Musical Culture’. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2016, September 17) ‘Pursuing Gold, Not Platitudes’, New York Times: SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brydson, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brydson, 2014; Rizzoli and Betz, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rizzoli and Betz, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Barthelemy et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment and Change
AbbreviationDev. Change
ISSN (online)1467-7660

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