How to format your references using the Dental Abstracts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Abstracts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith A. Life beyond the walls. Nature. 2002;415(6872):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgisser A, Bergantz GW. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature. 2011;471(7337):212-215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue P, Qin H, Tang B. Trapping photons on the line: controllable dynamics of a quantum walk. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4825.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garcia-Castellanos D, Estrada F, Jiménez-Munt I, et al. Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature. 2009;462(7274):778-781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Breitmaier E. Vom NMR-Spektrum Zur Strukturformel Organischer Verbindungen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Berstein LM, Santen RJ, eds. Innovative Endocrinology of Cancer. Vol 630. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Spindler P, Johannes FM. Kraftwerk: A Fast and Robust Quadratic Placer Using an Exact Linear Net Model. In: Nam G-J, Cong J, eds. Modern Circuit Placement: Best Practices and Results. Series on Integrated Circuits and Systems. Springer US; 2007:59-93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Abstracts.

Blog post
Luntz S. Cancer Patient’s Leg Attached To His Arm To Keep It Alive During Surgery. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfer: NNSA Did Not Implement the Technology Infrastructure Pilot Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eldridge RL. A Comparative Quantitative Study of Private College Audit Fee Behavior in a Highly Regulated Environment. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dannenberg L. In the Air on the Day the World Changed. New York Times. September 11, 2007:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Abstracts
AbbreviationDent. Abstr.
ISSN (print)0011-8486
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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