How to format your references using the Dental Abstracts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Abstracts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamanaka S. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Of mice and humans. Science. 2011;331(6019):873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medlock J, Galvani AP. Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution. Science. 2009;325(5948):1705-1708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stach S, Benard J, Giurfa M. Local-feature assembling in visual pattern recognition and generalization in honeybees. Nature. 2004;429(6993):758-761.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Quan Q, Wang C, He N, et al. Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei AR. Extended Finite Element Method. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Geddes CD, Lakowicz JR, eds. Reviews in Fluorescence 2006. Vol 2006. Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Giorgetti A, Girgenti A, Citti P, Delogu M. A Novel Approach for Axiomatic-Based Design for the Environment. In: Farid AM, Suh NP, eds. Axiomatic Design in Large Systems: Complex Products, Buildings and Manufacturing Systems. Springer International Publishing; 2016:131-148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Abstracts.

Blog post
Andrew D. Meet Lidar: The Amazing Laser Technology That’s Helping Archaeologists Discover Lost Cities. IFLScience. Published June 16, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: Status of OMB’s Review of Financial System Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar A. Small school, big gains: A case study of urban high school reform. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sehgal P. McPhee on McPhee: A Master’s Valedictory Lap. New York Times. September 13, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Abstracts
AbbreviationDent. Abstr.
ISSN (print)0011-8486
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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