How to format your references using the Dental Abstracts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Abstracts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paytan A. Geochemistry. Mountains, weathering, and climate. Science. 2012;335(6070):810-811.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garrott RA, Oli MK. Conservation. A critical crossroad for BLM’s wild horse program. Science. 2013;341(6148):847-848.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pobbati AV, Stein A, Fasshauer D. N- to C-terminal SNARE complex assembly promotes rapid membrane fusion. Science. 2006;313(5787):673-676.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shan CJ, Cheng WW, Liu JB, Cheng YS, Liu TK. Scaling of geometric quantum discord close to a topological phase transition. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell J. Index of Medical Imaging. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Dudek SM, ed. Transcriptional Regulation by Neuronal Activity: To the Nucleus and Back. Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Epstein I. No Turning Back, Neo-Liberalism Exposed. In: Epstein I, ed. The Whole World Is Texting: Youth Protest in the Information Age. SensePublishers; 2015:81-113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Abstracts.

Blog post
Hale T. People Have Already Figured Out How To Cheat At Pokémon GO. IFLScience. Published July 13, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1991. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theis JY. Accessing Mental Health Services among Asian American Adults: Evidence from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Custom Suits At Accessible Prices. New York Times. July 12, 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Abstracts
AbbreviationDent. Abstr.
ISSN (print)0011-8486
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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