How to format your references using the Dental Abstracts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Abstracts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bradley D. Neuroscience. Moving through the landscape. Science. 2002;295(5564):2385-2386.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tran AP, Silver J. Neuroscience. Systemically treating spinal cord injury. Science. 2015;348(6232):285-286.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nørskov JK, Bligaard T, Kleis J. Chemistry. Rate control and reaction engineering. Science. 2009;324(5935):1655-1656.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Su RQ, Lai YC, Wang X, Do Y. Uncovering hidden nodes in complex networks in the presence of noise. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jamison DC. Perl Programming for Biologists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Baronti M. Calculus Problems. Vol 101. (De Mari F, van der Putten R, Venturi I, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Navarro-Prieto R, Gil Rodríguez EP. Empirical User Studies in the Design of Mobile Distributed Collaborative Applications. In: Navarro-Prieto R, Vidal JL, eds. HCI Related Papers of Interacción 2004. Springer Netherlands; 2006:41-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Abstracts.

Blog post
Davis J. Smoke From Africa’s Agricultural Fires Inhibit The Formation Of Rain Clouds. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Infrastructure: Funding Trends and Federal Agencies’ Investment Estimates. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer GC. Best Practices for Student Success on the ACT. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russians Treat Chechen Children To a Summer Vacation From War. New York Times. July 31, 2001:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Abstracts
AbbreviationDent. Abstr.
ISSN (print)0011-8486
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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