How to format your references using the Defence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Defence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deming D. Astronomy: A small star with an Earth-like planet. Nature 2015;527:169–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jang H-J, Cho W-J. Performance enhancement of capacitive-coupling dual-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor in ultra-thin-body. Sci Rep 2014;4:5284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nemecek JC, Wüthrich M, Klein BS. Global control of dimorphism and virulence in fungi. Science 2006;312:583–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Budowle B, Schutzer SE, Einseln A, Kelley LC, Walsh AC, Smith JAL, et al. Public health. Building microbial forensics as a response to bioterrorism. Science 2003;301:1852–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Killops S, Killops V. Introduction to Organic Geochemistry. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2004.
An edited book
Gregor J. Discovering Mathematics: A Problem-Solving Approach to Mathematical Analysis with MATHEMATICA® and MapleTM. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Tichý* J, Erhart J, Kittinger* E, Přívratská J. Basic Thermodynamics of Piezoelectric Crystals. In: Erhart J, Kittinger E, Přívratská J, editors. Fundamentals of Piezoelectric Sensorics: Mechanical, Dielectric, and Thermodynamical Properties of Piezoelectric Materials, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Defence Technology.

Blog post
Fang J. Scientists Find One Of The Last Ever Lakes On Mars. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Personnel Security: Pass and Security Clearance Data for the Executive Office of the President. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trantham LC. PSA surveillance following radical prostatectomy: What we know and why it matters. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilford JN. John Glenn, Hero of the Space Age and a Longtime Senator, Is Dead at 95. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDefence Technology
ISSN (print)2214-9147

Other styles