How to format your references using the Defence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Defence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Zahnle K. Decline and fall of the empire. Nature 2001;412:209–13.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Pope BD, Gilbert DM. Genetics: Up and down in Down’s syndrome. Nature 2014;508:323–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Niemeier D, Gombachika H, Richards-Kortum R. How to transform the practice of engineering to meet global health needs. Science 2014;345:1287–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Polli D, Altoè P, Weingart O, Spillane KM, Manzoni C, Brida D, et al. Conical intersection dynamics of the primary photoisomerization event in vision. Nature 2010;467:440–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bennett MK. Affine and Projective Geometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
[1]
Gillispie CC. Lazare and Sadi Carnot: A Scientific and Filial Relationship. vol. 19. 2nd ed. 2014. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Kitaev S, Lozin V. Characterization of Word-Representable Graphs in Terms of Semi-transitive Orientations. In: Lozin V, editor. Words and Graphs, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 57–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Defence Technology.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. Sitting Infront Of A Light Box Every Morning Increases Male Sexual Satisfaction, Study Says. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/sitting-infront-of-a-light-box-every-morning-increases-male-sexual-satisfaction-study-says/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. School Lunch Program: Cafeteria Managers’ Views on Food Wasted by Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Morrow ST. Coboundary theorems for collections of random variables with moment conditions. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Isherwood C. Transfixed by a Burbling Fountain of Youth. New York Times 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDefence Technology
ISSN (print)2214-9147
Scope

Other styles