How to format your references using the Defence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Defence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mindell JA. Structural biology. The Tao of chloride transporter structure. Science 2010;330:601–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X, Zhou Z. Palaeontology: pterosaur embryo from the Early Cretaceous. Nature 2004;429:621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Percec V, Ungar G, Peterca M. Chemistry. Self-assembly in action. Science 2006;313:55–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lentink D, Dickson WB, van Leeuwen JL, Dickinson MH. Leading-edge vortices elevate lift of autorotating plant seeds. Science 2009;324:1438–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory J. Central Counterparties. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Harik R, Rivest L, Bernard A, Eynard B, Bouras A, editors. Product Lifecycle Management for Digital Transformation of Industries: 13th IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference, PLM 2016, Columbia, SC, USA, July 11-13, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 492. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Syme D, Granicz A, Cisternino A. Introducing Imperative Programming. In: Granicz A, Cisternino A, editors. Expert F# 3.0, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012, p. 49–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Defence Technology.

Blog post
Hale T. Nobel Prizes Kick Off With Announcement Of Medicine Award. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: DEA Has Developed Plans and Established Controls for Business Continuity Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkis B. How Do Highly Engaged Employees and Managers Find Meaning in Their Work? Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Will Hear Case On Evidence Suppression. New York Times 2008:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDefence Technology
ISSN (print)2214-9147

Other styles