How to format your references using the Defence Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Defence Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zare RN. Chemistry. Resonances in reaction dynamics. Science 2006;311:1383–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brandman O, Meyer T. Feedback loops shape cellular signals in space and time. Science 2008;322:390–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park S-H, Zarrinpar A, Lim WA. Rewiring MAP kinase pathways using alternative scaffold assembly mechanisms. Science 2003;299:1061–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garcia-Moreno C, Heise L, Jansen HAFM, Ellsberg M, Watts C. Public health. Violence against women. Science 2005;310:1282–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boillot M. Advanced Smart Grids for Distribution System Operators: Volume 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Merkisz J. New Trends in Emission Control in the European Union. vol. 4. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
De Carvalho JC, Cardoso LC, Ghiggi V, Woiciechowski AL, de Souza Vandenberghe LP, Soccol CR. Microbial Pigments. In: Brar SK, Dhillon GS, Soccol CR, editors. Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 73–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Defence Technology.

Blog post
Hale T. Nobel Laureate Finds Scientific Mistake On Turkish Banknote. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies’ Actions To Implement Section 11 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knoth KC. Biological Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Examination of an Introductory Level Implementation. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Bad Math and a Coming Public Pension Crisis. New York Times 2015:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDefence Technology
ISSN (print)2214-9147

Other styles