How to format your references using the Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch, X. (2000). Spanish postgrads push for better employment rights. Nature, 405(6788), 723.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keinan, A., & Clark, A. G. (2012). Recent explosive human population growth has resulted in an excess of rare genetic variants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6082), 740–743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser, C. M., Eisen, J. A., & Salzberg, S. L. (2000). Microbial genome sequencing. Nature, 406(6797), 799–803.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koçer, A., Walko, M., Meijberg, W., & Feringa, B. L. (2005). A light-actuated nanovalve derived from a channel protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5735), 755–758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop, J., Girma, D., & Irvine, J. (2013). Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rehm, G., & Uszkoreit, H. (Eds.). (2012). The Latvian Language in the Digital Age. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Poirier, E. J., & Poirier, D. R. (2016). Energy Balance Applications in Fluid Flow. In D. R. Poirier (Ed.), Solutions Manual To accompany Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing (pp. 63–91). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, December 1). Element 117 Has Officially Been Named “Tennessine.” IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Information Technology: DOD Needs to Improve Process for Ensuring Interoperability of Telecommunications Switches (GAO-02-681). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carlson, L. (2010). From Albéniz to Arbós: The orchestration of “Iberia” [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, May 25). When Politics Roils Market, Tuning Out May Pay Off. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bosch, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bosch, 2000; Keinan & Clark, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keinan & Clark, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Fraser et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Koçer et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision
AbbreviationDecision (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2325-9965
ISSN (online)2325-9973

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