How to format your references using the Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wald, C. (2015). Neuroscience: The aesthetic brain. Nature, 526(7572), S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Partridge, L., & Gems, D. (2007). Benchmarks for ageing studies. Nature, 450(7167), 165–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
de Roode, J. C., Lefèvre, T., & Hunter, M. D. (2013). Ecology. Self-medication in animals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6129), 150–151.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Salamat, A., Deifallah, M., Cabrera, R. Q., Corà, F., & McMillan, P. F. (2013). Identification of new pillared-layered carbon nitride materials at high pressure. Scientific Reports, 3, 2122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hartley, J. (2011). Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
France, R. B., Kuester, J. M., Bordbar, B., & Paige, R. F. (Eds.). (2011). Modelling Foundations and Applications: 7th European Conference, ECMFA 2011, Birmingham, UK, June 6 - 9, 2011 Proceedings (Vol. 6698). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bamias, G., Pizarro, T., & Cominelli, F. (2011). New Paradigms in the Pathogenesis of IBD. In R. D. Cohen (Ed.), Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Diagnosis and Therapeutics (pp. 41–57). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 20). Marine Plankton Found On Surface Of International Space Station. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Better Criteria Needed for Awarding Grants for School Desegregation (No. HRD-78-36). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koonin, L. M. (2013). Acceptability of pharmacies serving as primary dispensers of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic: Perspectives of pharmacy executives (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, June 12). Britain Adds Olympian. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wald, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Partridge & Gems, 2007; Wald, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Partridge & Gems, 2007)
  • Three authors: (de Roode, Lefèvre, & Hunter, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Salamat, Deifallah, Cabrera, Corà, & McMillan, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision
AbbreviationDecision (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2325-9965
ISSN (online)2325-9973

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