How to format your references using the Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nagaosa, N. (2007). Physics. A new state of quantum matter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 758–759.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuwayama, H., & Ishida, S. (2013). Biological soliton in multicellular movement. Scientific Reports, 3, 2272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Selmecki, A., Forche, A., & Berman, J. (2006). Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 367–370.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, D., Kim, D., Kim, J., & Moon, J. (2014). Characterizing nano-scale electrocatalysis during partial oxidation of methane. Scientific Reports, 4, 3937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G. (2005). Virtual Private Networking. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Stone, P. G., & Brough, D. (Eds.). (2014). Managing, Using, and Interpreting Hadrian’s Wall as World Heritage (Vol. 2). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Eichstädt, T. (2008). Applying Auction Theory to Procurement Auctions – An Empirical Study Among German Corporations. In H. Gimpel, N. R. Jennings, G. E. Kersten, A. Ockenfels, & C. Weinhardt (Eds.), Negotiation, Auctions, and Market Engineering: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 12-17, 2006, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 58–67). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, September 13). Researchers Sequenced 430,000-Year-Old DNA From Neanderthal Relative. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Need To Revise Office of Saline Water’s Restrictive Patent Policy (No. 093122). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gray, J. L. (2014). Overcoming the threat of racial stereotyping in the workplace [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, September 20). U.S.T.A. Faces Suit Over Sabbath Schedule. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nagaosa, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kuwayama & Ishida, 2013; Nagaosa, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuwayama & Ishida, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Selmecki et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision
AbbreviationDecision (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2325-9965
ISSN (online)2325-9973

Other styles