How to format your references using the Decision Analytics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analytics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLean AR. Epidemiology. Coming to an airport near you. Science. 2013 Dec 13;342(6164):1330–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heldwein EE, Brennan RG. Crystal structure of the transcription activator BmrR bound to DNA and a drug. Nature. 2001 Jan 18;409(6818):378–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acuña JL, López-Urrutia Á, Colin S. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes. Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1627–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chao Y, Ma L, Yang Y, Ju F, Zhang X-X, Wu W-M, et al. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment. Sci. Rep. 2013 Dec 19;3:3550.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barker P, Chang J. Basic Family Therapy. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Casanova F, Perlo J, Blümich B, editors. Single-Sided NMR. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Dhakal S. Evolution of Geomorphologic Hazards in Hindu Kush Himalaya. In: Nibanupudi HK, Shaw R, editors. Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 53–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analytics.

Blog post
Andrews R. 6,000-Year-Old Amulet Represents A Tech That Helped Take Humanity Into Space [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Development and Award of the SSA Systems Engineering and Integration Contract. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Nov. Report No.: 128425.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haile MD. A mental health community outreach and education program for Eritrean immigrants: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Maryland and Princeton Gain Final With Routs. New York Times. 2000 May 20;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McLean 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Heldwein and Brennan 2001; McLean 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heldwein and Brennan 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analytics
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (online)2193-8636

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