How to format your references using the Decision Analytics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analytics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee PH. Should we adjust for a confounder if empirical and theoretical criteria yield contradictory results? A simulation study. Sci. Rep. 2014 Aug 15;4:6085.
A journal article with 2 authors
Umeda H, Nomoto K. First-generation black-hole-forming supernovae and the metal abundance pattern of a very iron-poor star. Nature. 2003 Apr 24;422(6934):871–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ur JA, Karsgaard P, Oates J. Early urban development in the Near East. Science. 2007 Aug 31;317(5842):1188.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li JB, Levanon EY, Yoon J-K, Aach J, Xie B, Leproust E, et al. Genome-wide identification of human RNA editing sites by parallel DNA capturing and sequencing. Science. 2009 May 29;324(5931):1210–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris M. Concise Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Abo M. Rehabilitation with rTMS. 1st ed. 2015. Kakuda W, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Balakrishnan N, Cramer E. Progressive Type-I Censoring: Basic Properties. In: Cramer E, editor. The Art of Progressive Censoring: Applications to Reliability and Quality. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 115–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analytics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. SpaceX Might Perform A Daring Landing Of Its Massive New Rocket Later This Year. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Financing: Stakeholders’ Views on Recent Changes to the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Jul. Report No.: GAO-16-714R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim YI. Essays on Volatility Risk, Asset Returns and Consumption-Based Asset Pricing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. This Barber? He Has Demons. New York Times. 2017 Mar 2;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lee 2014; Umeda and Nomoto 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Umeda and Nomoto 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analytics
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (online)2193-8636

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