How to format your references using the Decision Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuhn M (2015) Cardiology: A big-hearted molecule. Nature 519(7544):416–417.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray GM, Cohen JT (2012) Policy: Rethink chemical risk assessments. Nature 489(7414):27–28.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shahabi A, Wang H, Upmanyu M (2014) Shaping van der Waals nanoribbons via torsional constraints: scrolls, folds and supercoils. Sci. Rep. 4:7004.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Paul EC, Hor-Meyll M, Ribeiro PHS, Walborn SP (2014) Measuring spatial correlations of photon pairs by automated raster scanning with spatial light modulators. Sci. Rep. 4:5337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitz B, Ewing JJ, Hecht J (2005) Introduction to Laser Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Yang ZZ (2012) Capture and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide with Polyethylene Glycol Song QW, He LN, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Dean P, Tu Y, Xue D (2007) Process Planning, Scheduling and Control for One-of-a-Kind Production. Wang L, Shen W, eds. Process Planning and Scheduling for Distributed Manufacturing. Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing. (Springer, London), 109–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analysis.

Blog post
Taub B (2015) What’s The Most Dangerous Contact Sport In The World? IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Aviation Safety: Additional Oversight Planning by FAA Could Enhance Safety Risk Management (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan S (2008) Aberrations of anamorphic optical systems. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM (2017) Confused by Scaramucci’s Plans for a Media Venture? So Is He. New York Times (October 3).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuhn 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gray and Cohen 2012, Kuhn 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray and Cohen 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Paul et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analysis
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (print)1545-8490
ISSN (online)1545-8504
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences

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