How to format your references using the Decision Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fray D (2013) Metallurgy: iron production electrified. Nature 497(7449):324–325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pouille F, Scanziani M (2001) Enforcement of temporal fidelity in pyramidal cells by somatic feed-forward inhibition. Science 293(5532):1159–1163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sempere T, Hartley A, Roperch P (2006) Comment on “Rapid uplift of the Altiplano revealed through 13C-18O bonds in paleosol carbonates.” Science 314(5800):760; author reply 760.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bhatt DH, Otto SJ, Depoister B, Fetcho JR (2004) Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits. Science 305(5681):254–258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
d’Andria A, Gabarret I (2017) Building 21st Century Entrepreneurship (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Tombran-Tink J, Barnstable CJ eds. (2008) Visual Transduction and Non-Visual Light Perception (Humana Press, Totowa, NJ).
A chapter in an edited book
Grofman B (2008) Kenneth J. Arrow (1921 - ). Schneider FG, ed. Readings in Public Choice and Constitutional Political Economy. (Springer US, Boston, MA), 85–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Plant That Only Grows In Diamond-Rich Soil Found. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Department of Education: Improved Oversight and Controls Could Help Education Better Respond to Evolving Priorities (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia RD (2008) Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation. Doctoral dissertation. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) Audit Finds Errors in Calculating Pensions in Bankruptcies. New York Times (November 17).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fray 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fray 2013, Pouille and Scanziani 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pouille and Scanziani 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bhatt et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analysis
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (print)1545-8490
ISSN (online)1545-8504
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences

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