How to format your references using the Decision Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Danzon PM (2007) At what price? Nature 449(7159):176–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson R, Moore T (2006) The economics of information security. Science 314(5799):610–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Preis T, Moat HS, Stanley HE (2013) Quantifying trading behavior in financial markets using Google Trends. Sci. Rep. 3:1684.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Smeulders MJ, Barends TRM, Pol A, Scherer A, Zandvoort MH, Udvarhelyi A, Khadem AF, et al. (2011) Evolution of a new enzyme for carbon disulphide conversion by an acidothermophilic archaeon. Nature 478(7369):412–416.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale J, Len IH (2008) Zero Limits (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Fleischhacker WW, Brooks DJ eds. (2005) Neurodevelopmental Disorders (Springer, Vienna).
A chapter in an edited book
Kovács P (2010) Characterization of the Runoff Regime and Its Stability in the Danube Catchment. Brilly M, ed. Hydrological Processes of the Danube River Basin: Perspectives from the Danubian Countries. (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht), 143–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analysis.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Don’t Miss NASA’s Amazing Rocket Booster Test Today In The Utah Desert. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Preliminary Observations on Funding, Oversight, and Investigations and Prosecutions of ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pearson D (2014) A High-Level Fuzzy Logic Guidance System for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Tasked to Perform an Autonomous Launch and Recovery (ALR) of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV). Doctoral dissertation. (Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Tricky Draw, and Tricky Hip, Stand in Way of Murray’s Title Defense. New York Times (June 30).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Danzon 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson and Moore 2006, Danzon 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Moore 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Smeulders et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analysis
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (print)1545-8490
ISSN (online)1545-8504
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences

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