How to format your references using the Decision Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Southwood D (2012) Research collaboration: When international partnerships go wrong. Nature 488(7412):451–453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller TM, Cleveland DW (2005) Medicine. Treating neurodegenerative diseases with antibiotics. Science 307(5708):361–362.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cartwright HN, Humphries JA, Smith LG (2009) PAN1: a receptor-like protein that promotes polarization of an asymmetric cell division in maize. Science 323(5914):649–651.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ekimov EA, Sidorov VA, Bauer ED, Mel’nik NN, Curro NJ, Thompson JD, Stishov SM (2004) Superconductivity in diamond. Nature 428(6982):542–545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf EL, Medikonda M (2012) Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany).
An edited book
Plemenos D, Miaoulis G eds. (2013) Intelligent Computer Graphics 2012 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Jiménez Urroz J (2008) Almost Prime Orders of CM Elliptic Curves Modulo p. Poorten AJ van der, Stein A, eds. Algorithmic Number Theory: 8th International Symposium, ANTS-VIII Banff, Canada, May 17-22, 2008 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 74–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Trial Will Investigate Use Of MDMA In The Treatment Of Anxiety In Seriously Ill Patients. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Federal Grants to New Jersey (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jekanowski EC (2017) District Leadership and Systemic Inclusion: A Case Study of One Inclusive and Effective School District. Doctoral dissertation. (Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2014) Archie Comic Picks Film and TV Writer for Top Creative Post. New York Times (March 3).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Southwood 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Miller and Cleveland 2005, Southwood 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Cleveland 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ekimov et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analysis
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (print)1545-8490
ISSN (online)1545-8504
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences

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