How to format your references using the Decision Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith R (2000) Making hard light sharper. Nature 404(6776):345, 347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forneris F, Mattevi A (2008) Enzymes without borders: mobilizing substrates, delivering products. Science 321(5886):213–216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barthelemy P, Bertolotti J, Wiersma DS (2008) A Lévy flight for light. Nature 453(7194):495–498.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wollert T, Wunder C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Hurley JH (2009) Membrane scission by the ESCRT-III complex. Nature 458(7235):172–177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pesavento L, Smoleny S (2015) A Trader’s Guide to Financial Astrology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Rubin P, Constine LS, Marks LB eds. (2014) ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment: Volume 1: General Concepts and Specific Precepts (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Lepik Ü, Hein H (2014) Integral Equations. Hein H, ed. Haar Wavelets: With Applications. Mathematical Engineering. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analysis.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Extent Of Arctic AND Antarctic Sea Ice Reaches Lowest Ever Recorded. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Telecommunications: GSA’s Difficulties Managing FTS 2000 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer CD (2013) School Referenda and Ohio Department of Education Typologies: An Investigation of the Outcomes of First Attempt School Operating Levies from 2002–2010. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1998) Circular Makes the Rounds and Residents Complain. New York Times (May 10).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Forneris and Mattevi 2008, Smith 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forneris and Mattevi 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wollert et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analysis
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (print)1545-8490
ISSN (online)1545-8504
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences

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