How to format your references using the Decision Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kornilov O (2015) Chemical physics. The quantum halo state of the helium trimer. Science 348(6234):498–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans WE, Relling MV (2004) Moving towards individualized medicine with pharmacogenomics. Nature 429(6990):464–468.
A journal article with 3 authors
Patkowski K, Spirko V, Szalewicz K (2009) On the elusive twelfth vibrational state of beryllium dimer. Science 326(5958):1382–1384.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Joughin I, Das SB, King MA, Smith BE, Howat IM, Moon T (2008) Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 320(5877):781–783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaufman JJ, Woodhead R (2006) Stimulating Innovation in Products and Services (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
De S (2016) Hybrid Soft Computing for Multilevel Image and Data Segmentation Bhattacharyya S, Chakraborty S, Dutta P, eds. (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Kibbe MR (2015) Leadership Theories and Styles. Kibbe MR, Chen H, eds. Leadership in Surgery. Success in Academic Surgery. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Man Talks To Possum, And The Possum Talks Back. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Telecommunications: Additional Coordination and Performance Measurement Needed for High-Speed Internet Access Programs on Tribal Lands (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mathew J (2008) Examining the relationship between secondary school head teachers’ leadership and teachers’ satisfaction in Kerala, India. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2009) Sorting Out Their Goals, and Options. New York Times (April 12).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kornilov 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Evans and Relling 2004, Kornilov 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Relling 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Joughin et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Analysis
AbbreviationDecis. Anal.
ISSN (print)1545-8490
ISSN (online)1545-8504
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences

Other styles