How to format your references using the Dairy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dairy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dyson, F.J. History of Science. Is Science Mostly Driven by Ideas or by Tools? Science 2012, 338, 1426–1427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knight, J.C.; Russell, P.S.J. Applied Optics. New Ways to Guide Light. Science 2002, 296, 276–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Y.; Forsyth, D.W.; Savage, B. Convective Upwelling in the Mantle beneath the Gulf of California. Nature 2009, 462, 499–501.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vemula, P.K.; Kohler, J.E.; Blass, A.; Williams, M.; Xu, C.; Chen, L.; Jadhav, S.R.; John, G.; Soybel, D.I.; Karp, J.M. Self-Assembled Hydrogel Fibers for Sensing the Multi-Compartment Intracellular Milieu. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wasson, C.S. System Analysis, Design, and Development; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471728245.
An edited book
Barone, C. Food Packaging Hygiene; Bolzoni, L., Caruso, G., Montanari, A., Parisi, S., Steinka, I., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319148267.
A chapter in an edited book
Hyslop-Margison, E.; Savarese, J. l. The Corporatization of the University. In Politics, Participation & Power Relations: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Critical Citizenship in the Classroom and Community; Mitchell, R.C., Moore, S.A., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2012; pp. 51–62 ISBN 9789460917431.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dairy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Can You Learn to Taste and Smell the Letter B? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Business Modernization: Improvements Needed in Management of NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson, J. Differences in Physical Activity Behavior between Insulin Using Diabetics versus Non-Insulin Using Diabetics. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Montague, J. Door Opens to Hinterlands of Soccer. New York Times 2017, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDairy
ISSN (online)0001-0001

Other styles