How to format your references using the Dairy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dairy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A’Hearn, M.F. The Comet No One Saw. Nature 2000, 405, 285, 287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikeda, T.; Ube, T. Materials Science: A Superelastic Organic Crystal. Nature 2014, 511, 300–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brandvain, Y.; Barker, M.S.; Wade, M.J. Gene Co-Inheritance and Gene Transfer. Science 2007, 315, 1685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Luo, H.-W.; Chen, J.-J.; Sheng, G.-P.; Su, J.-H.; Wei, S.-Q.; Yu, H.-Q. Experimental and Theoretical Approaches for the Surface Interaction between Copper and Activated Sludge Microorganisms at Molecular Scale. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7078.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradley, R.L., Jr. Edison to Enron; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118192481.
An edited book
Reshaping Society through Analytics, Collaboration, and Decision Support: Role of Business Intelligence and Social Media; Iyer, L.S., Power, D.J., Eds.; Annals of Information Systems; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 18; ISBN 9783319115740.
A chapter in an edited book
Oquendo, F.; Leite, J.; Batista, T. Specifying Behavior of Software Architectures. In Software Architecture in Action: Designing and Executing Architectural Models with SysADL Grounded on the OMG SysML Standard; Leite, J., Batista, T., Eds.; Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 65–88 ISBN 9783319443379.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dairy.

Blog post
Luntz, S. New App Can Literally Improve Your Eyesight Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Procedures for Making Grant Awards Under Three Department of Education Discretionary Grant Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar, B. A Drug and Alcohol Education and Prevention Program for Hispanic Families: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. Lori McCoy and Edwin Rossman Jr. New York Times 2011, ST15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDairy
ISSN (online)0001-0001

Other styles