How to format your references using the Current Sleep Medicine Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Sleep Medicine Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Spratt BG. Microbiology. Stomachs out of Africa. Science. 2003;299:1528–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bercovici D, Karato S-I. Whole-mantle convection and the transition-zone water filter. Nature. 2003;425:39–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mayle FE, Burbridge R, Killeen TJ. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests. Science. 2000;290:2291–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang J-S, Wang G, Feng X-Q, Kitamura T, Kang Y-L, Yu S-W, et al. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Robyns B, François B, Delille G, Saudemont C. Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Zhu Q, Gould J, Li Y, Ma C, editors. Rainwater Harvesting for Agriculture and Water Supply. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sartori J, Kumar R. Low-Overhead, High-Speed Multi-core Barrier Synchronization. In: Patt YN, Foglia P, Duesterwald E, Faraboschi P, Martorell X, editors. High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: 5th International Conference, HiPEAC 2010, Pisa, Italy, January 25-27, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 18–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Sleep Medicine Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. What Exactly Is A Super-Recognizer? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. D.C. Nonappropriated Revenue. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: AIMD-94-71R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Greene J. Recognizing the “Muchness” in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Baker L. A Community Comes to a University. New York Times. 2006 May 7;RE11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Sleep Medicine Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Sleep Med. Rep.
ISSN (online)2198-6401

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