How to format your references using the Current Problems in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grützmacher H. CHEMISTRY: New Chemical Bricks Made Through Phosphorus Tricks. Science. 2000;289(5480):737-738.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyon BE, Eadie JM. An obligate brood parasite trapped in the intraspecific arms race of its hosts. Nature. 2004;432(7015):390-393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sackmann EK, Fulton AL, Beebe DJ. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research. Nature. 2014;507(7491):181-189.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Richardson AD, Hufkens K, Milliman T, et al. Ecosystem warming extends vegetation activity but heightens vulnerability to cold temperatures. Nature. 2018;560(7718):368-371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cowan JP. The Effects of Sound on People. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Otto F, Lutz MP, eds. Early Gastrointestinal Cancers II: Rectal Cancer. Vol 203. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lashwood A, Say G. Complex Issues in PGD. In: El-Toukhy T, Braude P, eds. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in Clinical Practice. London: Springer; 2014:31-39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. 16 Events From 2016 That Should Give You Hope For The Future. IFLScience. Published January 3, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Registered Traveler Program Policy and Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sevier J. A preventative and treatment substance use program for GLBT adolescents in Long Beach: A grant proposal. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many. New York Times. June 4, 2006:14CN6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Surgery
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Surg.
ISSN (print)0011-3840
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles