How to format your references using the Current Problems in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Morgan B. Research impact: income for outcome. Nature. 2014;511(7510):S72-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lin JY, Fisher DE. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. Nature. 2007;445(7130):843-850.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Gebauer D, Völkel A, Cölfen H. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters. Science. 2008;322(5909):1819-1822.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pérez-Escobar OA, Cámara-Leret R, Antonelli A, et al. Mining threatens Colombian ecosystems. Science. 2018;359(6383):1475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Billingsley J. Essentials of Mechatronics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Marinello F, Passeri D, Savio E, eds. Acoustic Scanning Probe Microscopy. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Mostofi Y, Ghaffarkhah A. Kalman Filtering Over Wireless Fading Channels. In: Mazumder SK, ed. Wireless Networking Based Control. Springer; 2011:103-134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. New Technology Allows Water Purification Using Sunlight. IFLScience. Published March 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/new-technology-allows-water-purification-using-sunlight/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Patent Office Should Define Quality, Reassess Incentives, and Improve Clarity. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
ELBoushi TC. Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Hacker Halts New Kremlin TV Channel. New York Times. December 13, 2005:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Surgery
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Surg.
ISSN (print)0011-3840
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Surgery

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