How to format your references using the Current Problems in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie T. Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect. Nature. 2010;464(7286):267-270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goff SA, Klee HJ. Plant volatile compounds: sensory cues for health and nutritional value? Science. 2006;311(5762):815-819.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Tonder GJ, Lyons MJ, Ejima Y. Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden. Nature. 2002;419(6905):359-360.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bagchi J, Durret F, Neto GBL, Paul S. Giant ringlike radio structures around galaxy cluster Abell 3376. Science. 2006;314(5800):791-794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King AM. Internal Control of Fixed Assets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Tundo P, He L-N, Lokteva E, Mota C, eds. Chemistry Beyond Chlorine. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Argenyi Z, Jokinen CH. Malignant Cutaneous Neoplasms with Peripheral Nerve Differentiation. In: Jokinen CH, ed. Cutaneous Neural Neoplasms: A Practical Guide. Humana Press; 2011:83-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Born this way? An evolutionary view of ‘gay genes.’ IFLScience. Published July 9, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.‘gay-genes’/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Progress Continues to Be Made in Establishing Corporate Management Controls, but Further Steps Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao D. In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay IP. Dogwood at Valley Forge. New York Times. May 7, 1935:BOOKS ART22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Surgery
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Surg.
ISSN (print)0011-3840
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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