How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Schlichting, Structural biology: Photosynthetic complex in close-up, Nature. 517 (2015) 26–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.L. Bada, A. Lazcano, Perceptions of science. Prebiotic soup--revisiting the Miller experiment, Science. 300 (2003) 745–746.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.H. Rieseberg, T.E. Wood, E.J. Baack, The nature of plant species, Nature. 440 (2006) 524–527.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Einsle, F.A. Tezcan, S.L.A. Andrade, B. Schmid, M. Yoshida, J.B. Howard, D.C. Rees, Nitrogenase MoFe-protein at 1.16 A resolution: a central ligand in the FeMo-cofactor, Science. 297 (2002) 1696–1700.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Broome, Weighing Goods, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2017.
An edited book
A. König, A. Dengel, K. Hinkelmann, K. Kise, R.J. Howlett, L.C. Jain, eds., Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 15th International Conference, KES 2011, Kaiserslautern, Germany, September 12-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part III, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Grefen, N. Mehandjiev, Organization Aspect, in: N. Mehandjiev, P. Grefen (Eds.), Dynamic Business Process Formation for Instant Virtual Enterprises, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Toxicology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Five Common Misconceptions About Seasonal Flu, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Regulatory Initiatives of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Andrews, Yoga as mental health treatment for cancer survivors: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Flegenheimer, Piecing Through ‘Utter Chaos’ After Train Crash, New York Times. (2015) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Toxicology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-2020

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