How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.D. Simons, Development. Getting your gut into shape, Science. 342 (2013) 203–204.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Sykora, K.W. Becker, Heavy fermion properties of the Kondo Lattice model, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2691.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Browne, A. Tunnacliffe, A. Burnell, Anhydrobiosis: plant desiccation gene found in a nematode, Nature. 416 (2002) 38.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Arimura, K. Shirayama, N. Horikoshi, R. Fujita, H. Taguchi, W. Kagawa, T. Fukagawa, G. Almouzni, H. Kurumizaka, Crystal structure and stable property of the cancer-associated heterotypic nucleosome containing CENP-A and H3.3, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.Z. Valiev, A.P. Zhilyaev, T.G. Langdon, Bulk Nanostructured Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
L.W. Kennedy, Translational Criminology and Counterterrorism: Global Threats and Local Responses, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Dolamic, J. Savoy, Stemming Approaches for East European Languages, in: C. Peters, V. Jijkoun, T. Mandl, H. Müller, D.W. Oard, A. Peñas, V. Petras, D. Santos (Eds.), Advances in Multilingual and Multimodal Information Retrieval: 8th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2007, Budapest, Hungary, September 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Toxicology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why Are Bugs Attracted To light?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Current Broadband Measures Have Limitations and New Measures Are Promising but Need Improvement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.P. Humphreys, The Role of Developmental Screening Practices in Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analysis of All-Payer Claims Data in New Hampshire, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Thinking Big On Making Little Cakes, New York Times. (2008) NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Toxicology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-2020

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