How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Bradforth, Chemistry. Tracking state-to-state bimolecular reaction dynamics in solution, Science. 331 (2011) 1398–1399.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.H. Fitter, R.S.R. Fitter, Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants, Science. 296 (2002) 1689–1691.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Gruber, C.D. Keeling, N.R. Bates, Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink, Science. 298 (2002) 2374–2378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.H. Dijkstra, E. Pirinen, J. Huusko, R. Kivelä, D. Schenkwein, K. Alitalo, S. Ylä-Herttuala, Lack of cardiac and high-fat diet induced metabolic phenotypes in two independent strains of Vegf-b knockout mice, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.H. Rassool, Addiction for Nurses, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
N.A. Yacob, M. Mohamed, M.A.K. Megat Hanafiah, eds., Regional Conference on Science, Technology and Social Sciences (RCSTSS 2014): Science and Technology, 1st ed. 2016, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Stangenberg, R. Breitenbücher, O.T. Bruhns, D. Hartmann, R. Höffer, D. Kuhl, G. Meschke, Methodological Implementation, in: R. Breitenbücher, O.T. Bruhns, D. Hartmann, R. Höffer, D. Kuhl, G. Meschke (Eds.), Lifetime-Oriented Structural Design Concepts, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 365–652.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Toxicology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How We Invented A Star Trek-Style Sonic Tractor Beam, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Ohio State Plan for the Education of Handicapped Children, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.L. Jurica, Napping in the workplace as an invisible stigma: The moderating roles of raters’ nap habit, work ethic, and organizational policy, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Corkery, M.W. Walsh, In Puerto Rico, Debt Is Called ‘Not Payable,’ New York Times. (2015) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Toxicology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-2020

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