How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kiessling AA: Eggs alone. Nature 2005, 434:145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimes RW, Nuttall WJ: Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance. Science 2010, 329:799–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stollewerk A, Schoppmeier M, Damen WGM: Involvement of Notch and Delta genes in spider segmentation. Nature 2003, 423:863–865.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Foster KL, Plastridge RA, Bottenheim JW, Shepson PB, Finlayson-Pitts BJ, Spicer CW: The role of Br2 and BrCl in surface ozone destruction at polar sunrise. Science 2001, 291:471–474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster J, Shimonski R: GIMP Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Miri SJ, Lake R, Kress TM (Eds): Reclaiming the Sane Society: Essays on Erich Fromm’s Thought. SensePublishers; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Stechert C, Franke H-J, Vietor T: Knowledge-Based Design Principles and Tools for Parallel Robots. In Robotic Systems for Handling and Assembly. Edited by Schütz D, Wahl FM. Springer; 2011:59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Immunology.

Blog post
Hale T: This Video Shows The Moment A Missing Indonesian Man Was Found Inside A Python. IFLScience 2017,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on GAO Legal Opinion on DOT Authority to Requisition Vessels of U.S. Citizens]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh PL: Advancing Electroanalytical Methods for Monitoring Chemical Messenger Release. 2012,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora M, Baker AL: Despite Strict Gun Law, Doctor Was Able to Buy Assault Rifle. New York Times 2017,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Immunology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0952-7915
ISSN (online)1879-0372
Immunology and Allergy

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