How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards PP: Chemistry. Electrons in cement. Science 2011, 333:49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleckner D, Bouwmeester D: Sub-kelvin optical cooling of a micromechanical resonator. Nature 2006, 444:75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith J, Van Dyken JD, Zee PC: A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation. Science 2010, 328:1700–1703.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee J-Y, Yoo B-C, Rojas MR, Gomez-Ospina N, Staehelin LA, Lucas WJ: Selective trafficking of non-cell-autonomous proteins mediated by NtNCAPP1. Science 2003, 299:392–396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Etten WC: Introduction to Random Signals and Noise. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Tavares JMRS, Natal Jorge R (Eds): Developments in Medical Image Processing and Computational Vision. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Anton C: An Improved Satisfiable SAT Generator Based on Random Subgraph Isomorphism. In Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 24th Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Canadian AI 2011, St. John’s, Canada, May 25-27, 2011. Proceedings. Edited by Butz C, Lingras P. Springer; 2011:44–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Immunology.

Blog post
Hale T: Pharmaceutical Company Bumps Up Price Of Skin Cream To Nearly $10,000. IFLScience 2016,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: FAA Has Many Investment Management Capabilities in Place, but More Oversight of Operational Systems Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder K: Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization. 2017,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Reyes Raises His Game, and His Team’s Spirits. New York Times 2016,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Immunology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0952-7915
ISSN (online)1879-0372
Immunology and Allergy

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