How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cane MA: Climate: A moist model monsoon. Nature 2010, 463:163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugita Y, Suzuki Y: Audiovisual perception: Implicit estimation of sound-arrival time. Nature 2003, 421:911.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan X, Liu F, Zhang M: Comment on “Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness.” Science 2012, 335:1441; author reply 1441.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sawano F, Terasaki I, Mori H, Mori T, Watanabe M, Ikeda N, Nogami Y, Noda Y: An organic thyristor. Nature 2005, 437:522–524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms: Engineering Solutions for Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Qi E, Su Q, Shen J, Wu F, Dou R (Eds): Proceedings of the 5th International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering and Management Innovation (IEMI2014). Atlantis Press; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Domingos P, Lowd D, Kok S, Nath A, Poon H, Richardson M, Singla P: Markov Logic: A Language and Algorithms for Link Mining. In Link Mining: Models, Algorithms, and Applications. Edited by Yu PS, Han J, Faloutsos C. Springer; 2010:135–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Immunology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Balloon Capsule That Will Take People To The Edge Of Space Completes Test Flight. IFLScience 2015,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Emergency Management: Improved Federal Coordination Could Better Assist K-12 Schools Prepare for Emergencies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela J: Medicare advantage’s population make-up and its impact on the future of Medicare financing. 2014,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J: Owner of Brooklyn Brownstone Sees Herself Caught in Airbnb Crossfire. New York Times 2016,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Immunology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0952-7915
ISSN (online)1879-0372
Immunology and Allergy

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