How to format your references using the Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fauci AS. Race against time. Nature. 2005;435:423–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jones JH, Handcock MS. Social networks: Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds. Nature. 2003;423:605–6; discussion 606.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mitchell RN, Kilian TM, Evans DAD. Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time. Nature. 2012;482:208–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang L, Meng W-Q, Lu L, Xue Y-S, Li C, Zou F, et al. Selective detection of endogenous H₂S in living cells and the mouse hippocampus using a ratiometric fluorescent probe. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lacava A, Bogucki J, Bedrytski A, de Detrich M, Neil B. Professional Scala. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Marincola FM, Wang E, editors. Immunologic Signatures of Rejection. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dong A, Kleinsmann M. Methods for Studying Collaborative Design Thinking. In: Cash P, Stanković T, Štorga M, editors. Experimental Design Research: Approaches, Perspectives, Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 83–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Scientists Turn Harmful Algal Blooms Into High-Capacity Battery Components [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Weak Controls Place DC Highway Trust Fund and Other Data at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jan. Report No.: GAO-01-155.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Henderson MM. Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kanter J. ‘Stupid Us’: U.S. Retirees and Fraud Tied to E.U. Commissioner. New York Times. 2017 May 12;A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
AbbreviationCost Eff. Resour. Alloc.
ISSN (online)1478-7547
ScopeHealth Policy

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