How to format your references using the Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cyranoski D. The changing face of industry. Nature. 2015;528:S184-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Veiseh O, Langer R. Diabetes: A smart insulin patch. Nature. 2015;524:39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tayagaki T, Hoshi Y, Usami N. Investigation of the open-circuit voltage in solar cells doped with quantum dots. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Güdel M, Briggs KR, Montmerle T, Audard M, Rebull L, Skinner SL. Million-degree plasma pervading the extended Orion Nebula. Science. 2008;319:309–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gostick A, Elton C. Führen mit Möhren. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Lajiness M, Quallich S, editors. The Nurse Practitioner in Urology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kerres J. Applications of Acid–Base Blend Concepts to Intermediate Temperature Membranes. In: Li Q, Aili D, Hjuler HA, Jensen JO, editors. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Approaches, Status, and Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 59–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. World First: Scientists Observe DNA Shuttling Between Cells, Triggering Tumor Growth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Operations: NASA Is Not Properly Safeguarding Valuable Data From Past Missions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Mar. Report No.: IMTEC-90-1.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reese NE. The Ecomorphology of White-tailed Deer Lower Limb Bones Through the Holocene in Central North America [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yablonsky L. NOW SHOWING | A MOVABLE FEAST. New York Times. 2008 Dec 7;M282.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
AbbreviationCost Eff. Resour. Alloc.
ISSN (online)1478-7547
ScopeHealth Policy

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