How to format your references using the Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dinman JD. Molecular biology: Entry signals control development. Nature. 2015;517:24–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lowell BB, Shulman GI. Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Science. 2005;307:384–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Friedmann T, Rabin O, Frankel MS. Ethics. Gene doping and sport. Science. 2010;327:647–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wohlgenannt M, Tandon K, Mazumdar S, Ramasesha S, Vardeny ZV. Formation cross-sections of singlet and triplet excitons in pi-conjugated polymers. Nature. 2001;409:494–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Will H. »Sei naiv und mach’ ein Experiment«: Feodor Lynen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
1. Wieland V, editor. The Science and Practice of Monetary Policy Today: The Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics 2007. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Silva MF, Tenreiro Machado JA, Lopes AM. Integer vs. Fractional Order Control of a Hexapod Robot. In: González Santos P de, editor. Climbing and Walking Robots: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference CLAWAR 2004. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 73–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Frogs Are Irrational [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. University Funding: Patterns of Distribution of Federal Research Funds to Universities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Feb. Report No.: RCED-87-67BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gillan-Sanderson NA. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Casey N. Pregnant and Facing Dilemma Over Zika. New York Times. 2016 Feb 16;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
AbbreviationCost Eff. Resour. Alloc.
ISSN (online)1478-7547
ScopeHealth Policy

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