How to format your references using the Control Engineering Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Control Engineering Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuper, A. (2009). Obituary: Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009). Nature, 462(7275), 862.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamm, J. M., & Hess, O. (2013). Physics. Two two-dimensional materials are better than one. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6138), 1298–1299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duijn, P. A. C., Kashirin, V., & Sloot, P. M. A. (2014). The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption. Scientific Reports, 4, 4238.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xie, D.-Y., Sharma, S. B., Paiva, N. L., Ferreira, D., & Dixon, R. A. (2003). Role of anthocyanidin reductase, encoded by BANYULS in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5605), 396–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dayton, G. (2014). Trade Mindfully. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nitto, E. D., & Ripeanu, M. (Eds.). (2009). Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2007 Workshops: ICSOC 2007, International Workshops, Vienna, Austria, September 17, 2007, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 4907). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moritz, N., Goetze, S., & Appell, J.-E. (2011). Ambient Voice Control for a Personal Activity and Household Assistant. In R. Wichert & B. Eberhardt (Eds.), Ambient Assisted Living: 4. AAL-Kongress 2011, Berlin, Germany, January 25–26, 2011 (pp. 63–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Control Engineering Practice.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, March 16). New Zealand River Is Given Same Legal Rights As Humans. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Environmental Satellites: Improvements Needed in NOAA’s Mitigation Strategies as It Prepares for Potential Satellite Coverage Gaps (GAO-15-386T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woo, C. (2008). Cross-Cultural Encounter and the Novel: Nation, Identity, and Genre in Nineteenth-Century British Literature [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, August 6). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; There They Go Again: Clinton and Gore Climb Back on Bus for a 3-Day Trip. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuper, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hamm & Hess, 2013; Kuper, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamm & Hess, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Duijn et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xie et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleControl Engineering Practice
AbbreviationControl Eng. Pract.
ISSN (print)0967-0661
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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