How to format your references using the Contraception citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contraception. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howat I. Journal club. A glaciologist ponders iceberg calving from a safe distance. Nature 2010;466:799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bowerman B, O’Rourke SM. Development. Pushing your back into place. Science 2012;336:984–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell KJ, Cooper A, Phillips MJ. Comment on “Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds.” Science 2015;349:1460.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu C, Zhai X, Liu L, Zhao Y, Jiang L, Qu L. Spontaneous reduction and assembly of graphene oxide into three-dimensional graphene network on arbitrary conductive substrates. Sci Rep 2013;3:2065.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davison M. Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Austin J, Bentkover J, Chait L, editors. Leading Strategic Change in an Era of Healthcare Transformation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Placier P, Pinnegar S, Hamilton ML, Guilfoyle K. Exploring the Concept of Dialogue in the Self-Study of Teaching Practices. In: Kosnik C, Beck C, Freese AR, Samaras AP, editors. Making a Difference in Teacher Education Through Self-Study: Studies of Personal, Professional and Program Renewal, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005, p. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contraception.

Blog post
Andrew E. Tasty Treat: How We Showed Fat To Be The Sixth Taste. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA’s Difficulties Managing FTS 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olanisa EL. Mental health issues and use of health care services among older immigrant women in California. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Blue Apron Slashes Price For Its I.P.O. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContraception
ISSN (print)0010-7824
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Reproductive Medicine

Other styles