How to format your references using the Contraception and Reproductive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contraception and Reproductive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Malakoff D. NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE: Report Details Spying on Touring Scientists. Science. 2000;288:2300–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lyons TW, Reinhard CT. Early Earth: Oxygen for heavy-metal fans. Nature. 2009;461:179–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Goldblatt C, Lenton TM, Watson AJ. Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation. Nature. 2006;443:683–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Allada RK, Navrotsky A, Berbeco HT, Casey WH. Thermochemistry and aqueous solubilities of hydrotalcite-like solids. Science. 2002;296:721–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. D’Amico G, Di Biase G, Janssen J, Manca R. Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Barceló J, editor. Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ozaki T, Kosaka T, Kusukawa K. Effect of Degree of Cure on Damage Development in FRP. In: Beese AM, Zehnder AT, Xia S, editors. Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, Volume 8: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contraception and Reproductive Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Sensing Gravity With Acid. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety:Collecting Data and Sharing Information on Federally Unregulated Gathering Pipelines Could Help Enhance Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Mar. Report No.: GAO-12-388.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Van Vlack KA. Puaxant tuvip: Powerlands Southern Paiute cultural landscapes and pilgrimage trails [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L, Kirkpatrick DD. Justices Loosen Ad Restrictions In Campaign Law. New York Times. 2007 Jun 26;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContraception and Reproductive Medicine
AbbreviationContracept. Reprod. Med.
ISSN (online)2055-7426

Other styles