How to format your references using the Contraception and Reproductive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contraception and Reproductive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nathan R. Long-distance dispersal of plants. Science. 2006;313:786–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Alle H, Geiger JRP. Combined analog and action potential coding in hippocampal mossy fibers. Science. 2006;311:1290–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li J, Han D, Zhao Y-P. Kinetic behaviour of the cells touching substrate: the interfacial stiffness guides cell spreading. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3910.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ireland TR, Holden P, Norman MD, Clarke J. Isotopic enhancements of 17O and 18O from solar wind particles in the lunar regolith. Nature. 2006;440:776–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kimball R, Ross M. The Kimball Group Reader. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Choudhury B. PBG based Terahertz Antenna for Aerospace Applications. 1st ed. 2016. Danana B, Jha RM, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lo Nigro G, Bruccoleri M, La Commare U. Negotiation Models in Manufacturing E-Marketplaces. In: Perrone G, Bruccoleri M, Renna P, editors. Designing and Evaluating Value Added Services in Manufacturing E-Market Places. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 97–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contraception and Reproductive Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Over 300 Reindeer Struck Dead By Lightning In Norway [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federally Funded R&D Centers: Use of Contract Fee by The Aerospace Corporation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-95-174.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Builes AJ. Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sophia Collier; Sophia Collier is the president of the American Natural Beverage Corporation. STREET SMARTS. New York Times. 1988 Jun 12;674.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContraception and Reproductive Medicine
AbbreviationContracept. Reprod. Med.
ISSN (online)2055-7426

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