How to format your references using the International Journal of Mental Health Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Mental Health Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Myhre G. Consistency between satellite-derived and modeled estimates of the direct aerosol effect. Science. 2009;325:187–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cirac JI, Zoller P. A scalable quantum computer with ions in an array of microtraps. Nature. 2000;404:579–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zimov SA, Schuur EAG, Chapin FS 3rd. Climate change. Permafrost and the global carbon budget. Science. 2006;312:1612–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ménot G, Bard E, Rostek F, Weijers JWH, Hopmans EC, Schouten S, et al. Early reactivation of European rivers during the last deglaciation. Science. 2006;313:1623–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hessel V, Löwe H, Müller A, Kolb G. Chemical Micro Process Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Vinhas de Souza L, Havrylyshyn O, editors. Return to Growth in CIS Countries: Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Framework. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dragolov G, Ignácz ZS, Lorenz J, Delhey J, Boehnke K, Unzicker K. Syndrome Character and Regimes of Social Cohesion. In: Ignácz ZS, Lorenz J, Delhey J, Boehnke K, Unzicker K, editors. Social Cohesion in the Western World: What Holds Societies Together: Insights from the Social Cohesion Radar. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Mental Health Systems.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Finally Explain The Link Between Stress And Heart Attacks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Organization for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Jan. Report No.: 091014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sinha R. An Integrated Development Environment for the Clara Constraint-Programming Language [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Call to the Bullpen Crackles With a Last Laugh. New York Times. 2010 Oct 4;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Mental Health Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Ment. Health Syst.
ISSN (online)1752-4458
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Phychiatric Mental Health

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