How to format your references using the International Journal of Mental Health Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Mental Health Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gutiérrez RA. Systems biology for enhanced plant nitrogen nutrition. Science. 2012;336:1673–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tsou M-FB, Stearns T. Mechanism limiting centrosome duplication to once per cell cycle. Nature. 2006;442:947–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Aronov D, Andalman AS, Fee MS. A specialized forebrain circuit for vocal babbling in the juvenile songbird. Science. 2008;320:630–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schaefer H, Whiticar MJ, Brook EJ, Petrenko VV, Ferretti DF, Severinghaus JP. Ice record of delta13C for atmospheric CH4 across the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition. Science. 2006;313:1109–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Beagle JR. Surgical Essentials of Immediate Implant Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Arzarello F. Dalla geometria di Euclide alla geometria dell’Universo: Geometria su sfera, cilindro, cono, pseudosfera. Dané C, Lovera L, Mosca M, Nolli N, Ronco A, editors. Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mokam D. US and the Democratic Process in Cameroon from 1990 to 2013. In: Burt S, Añorve DA, editors. Global Perspectives on US Democratization Efforts: From the Outside In. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Mental Health Systems.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Bumblebees: Will Learn For Food [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Should Improve the Accountability and Transparency of High-Cost Program Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jul. Report No.: GAO-14-587.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pavuluri VK. Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors Based on DSP Controller [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Isaac M. Uber’s Use of ‘Greyball’ Tool to Evade Authorities Spurs U.S. Inquiry. New York Times. 2017 May 5;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Mental Health Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Ment. Health Syst.
ISSN (online)1752-4458
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Phychiatric Mental Health

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