How to format your references using the International Journal of Mental Health Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Mental Health Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Enserink M. DUTCH SCIENCE: On a Slippery Slope to Mediocrity? Science. 2000;289:2033.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. DeLong EF, Karl DM. Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography. Nature. 2005;437:336–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Borys NJ, Shafran E, Lupton JM. Surface plasmon delocalization in silver nanoparticle aggregates revealed by subdiffraction supercontinuum hot spots. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2090.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang Q, Chen J, Kuwajima K, Zhang H-M, Xian F, Young NL, et al. Nucleotide-induced conformational changes of tetradecameric GroEL mapped by H/D exchange monitored by FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Maloberti F. Understanding Microelectronics. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Ross RG, editor. Cryocoolers 13. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yashin AI, Ukraintseva SV, Akushevich I, Kulminski AM, Arbeev KG, Stallard E. Evidence for Dependence Among Diseases. In: Stallard E, Land KC, editors. Biodemography of Aging: Determinants of Healthy Life Span and Longevity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. p. 95–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Mental Health Systems.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Machines Can Filter Out Chatter In A Crowded Room, Just Like Us [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Safeguarding Taxpayer Information: An Evaluation of the Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jan. Report No.: LCD-76-115.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sharma V. Functional Characterization of Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers in Caenorhabditis elegans [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dyson ME. Charlottesville and the Bigotocracy. New York Times. 2017 Aug 13;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Mental Health Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Ment. Health Syst.
ISSN (online)1752-4458
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Phychiatric Mental Health

Other styles