How to format your references using the International Journal of Mental Health Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Mental Health Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Garber K. Genetics: Deep exploration. Nature. 2012;492:S56-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Crandall KA, Buhay JE. Evolution. Genomic databases and the tree of life. Science. 2004;306:1144–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fish J, Raule N, Attardi G. Discovery of a major D-loop replication origin reveals two modes of human mtDNA synthesis. Science. 2004;306:2098–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang W, Thornton K, Berry A, Long M. Nucleotide variation along the Drosophila melanogaster fourth chromosome. Science. 2002;295:134–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bragg SM. The Controller’s Function. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Parrotta JA, Trosper RL, editors. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mutanda T, Ramesh D, Anandraj A, Bux F. Sustainable Biodiesel Production Using Wastewater Streams and Microalgae in South Africa. In: Gurib-Fakim A, Eloff JN, editors. Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Mental Health Systems.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Chicago Doctor Investigated For Giving Kids Vaccinations Made With Vodka And Cat Saliva. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Highway Program Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Aug. Report No.: RCED-91-198.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. DeClerk CC. The relationship between retail store manager leadership styles and employee generational cohort, performance, and satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schmidt MS. Red Sox Used Apple Watch to Help Steal Signs, Inquiry Finds. New York Times. 2017 Sep 5;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Mental Health Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Ment. Health Syst.
ISSN (online)1752-4458
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Phychiatric Mental Health

Other styles