How to format your references using the International Journal of Mental Health Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Mental Health Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schlamminger S. Fundamental constants: a cool way to measure big G. Nature. 2014;510:478–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McNamara AK, Zhong S. Thermochemical structures beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean. Nature. 2005;437:1136–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Opher M, Stone EC, Gombosi TI. The orientation of the local interstellar magnetic field. Science. 2007;316:875–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Eremets MI, Trojan IA, Medvedev SA, Tse JS, Yao Y. Superconductivity in hydrogen dominant materials: silane. Science. 2008;319:1506–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith CL. Distillation Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. González-Aguilar H, Ugalde E, editors. Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Models and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Vacha-Haase T, Donaldson WV, Foster A. Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Older Adults. In: Miville ML, Ferguson AD, editors. Handbook of Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Psychology. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 65–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Mental Health Systems.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Driverless Cars Will Change The Way We Think Of Car Ownership [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Efforts to Strengthen the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: RCED-90-236.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Khanabadi Ghehi M. Global Operation of Integrated Decentralized Power Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD, Haberman M. Friend Suggests Trump May Fire Special Counsel. New York Times. 2017 Jun 13;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Mental Health Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Ment. Health Syst.
ISSN (online)1752-4458
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Phychiatric Mental Health

Other styles