How to format your references using the Computer Assisted Language Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Assisted Language Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sastry, S. (2001). The relationship between fragility, configurational entropy and the potential energy landscape of glass-forming liquids. Nature, 409(6817), 164–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nuttall, I., & Dye, C. (2013). Epidemiology. The SARS wake-up call. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6125), 1287–1288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roselló-Díez, A., Ros, M. A., & Torres, M. (2011). Diffusible signals, not autonomous mechanisms, determine the main proximodistal limb subdivision. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6033), 1086–1088.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Guiso, L., Monte, F., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2008). Diversity. Culture, gender, and math. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1164–1165.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1995). Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Holz, F. G., & Spaide, R. (Eds.). (2010). Medical Retina: Focus on Retinal Imaging. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Michielsen, K., De Raedt, H., & De Raedt, K. (2006). Deterministic Event-based Simulation of Universal Quantum Computation. In D. P. Landau, S. P. Lewis, & H.-B. Schüttler (Eds.), Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Workshop Athens, GA, USA, March 7–11, 2005 (pp. 32–36). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 23). This Swedish City Is Moving Three Kilometers Down The Road. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). District of Columbia Public Schools: Important Steps Taken to Continue Reform Efforts, But Enhanced Planning Could Improve Implementation and Sustainability (GAO-09-619). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolb, J. N. (2015). What’s professional development got to do with it? The value of lesson study in implementing the common core standards for mathematical practices [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, May 20). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sastry, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Nuttall & Dye, 2013; Sastry, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nuttall & Dye, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Roselló-Díez et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Guiso et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Assisted Language Learning
AbbreviationComput. Assist. Lang. Learn.
ISSN (print)0958-8221
ISSN (online)1744-3210
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Linguistics and Language

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