How to format your references using the Computer Assisted Language Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Assisted Language Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doms, R. W. (2010). Immunology. Prime, boost, and broaden. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5995), 1021–1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wenseleers, T., & Ratnieks, F. L. W. (2006). Enforced altruism in insect societies. Nature, 444(7115), 50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belonoshko, A. B., Ahuja, R., & Johansson, B. (2003). Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth’s inner core. Nature, 424(6952), 1032–1034.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fraidenraich, D., Stillwell, E., Romero, E., Wilkes, D., Manova, K., Basson, C. T., & Benezra, R. (2004). Rescue of cardiac defects in id knockout embryos by injection of embryonic stem cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 247–252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Behme, S. (2015). Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical Proteins. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Miles, I. (2016). Foresight for Science, Technology and Innovation (O. Saritas & A. Sokolov, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, C., & Balch, W. E. (2016). Managing the Adaptive Proteostatic Landscape: Restoring Resilience in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. In A. Wanner & R. A. Sandhaus (Eds.), Alpha-1 Antitrypsin: Role in Health and Disease (pp. 53–83). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, June 7). Sleeping In On A Weekend Is Bad For Your Health, Study Finds. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). District of Columbia Public Education: Agencies Have Enhanced Internal Controls Over Federal Payments for School Improvement, But More Consistent Monitoring Needed (GAO-11-16). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zuckerman, T. (2017). The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2012, July 15). Mystery House. New York Times, ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Doms, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Doms, 2010; Wenseleers & Ratnieks, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wenseleers & Ratnieks, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Belonoshko et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fraidenraich et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Assisted Language Learning
AbbreviationComput. Assist. Lang. Learn.
ISSN (print)0958-8221
ISSN (online)1744-3210
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Linguistics and Language

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