How to format your references using the Computer Assisted Language Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Assisted Language Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2003). Building bridges. Nature, 425(6960), 882–883.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, J. D., & Schubert, G. (2007). Saturn’s gravitational field, internal rotation, and interior structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5843), 1384–1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moritz, C. T., Perlmutter, S. I., & Fetz, E. E. (2008). Direct control of paralysed muscles by cortical neurons. Nature, 456(7222), 639–642.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, H. Z., Hackbarth, C. J., Chansky, K. M., & Chambers, H. F. (2001). A proteolytic transmembrane signaling pathway and resistance to beta-lactams in staphylococci. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5510), 1962–1965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prazeres, D. M. F. (2011). Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gerlee, P. (2016). Scientific Models: Red Atoms, White Lies and Black Boxes in a Yellow Book (T. Lundh, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Godoy, G., & Jacquemard, F. (2009). Unique Normalization for Shallow TRS. In R. Treinen (Ed.), Rewriting Techniques and Applications: 20th International Conference, RTA 2009 Brasília, Brazil, June 29 - July 1, 2009 Proceedings (pp. 63–77). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 14). Are You A Psychopath? Take This Test To Find Out. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Electronic Government: Planned e-Authentication Gateway Faces Formidable Development Challenges (GAO-03-952). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norris, C. (2014). What is Lost Along the Way [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1997, November 9). With Historic Brownstone Gone, Is Development at Hand? New York Times, 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson & Schubert, 2007; Hoag, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson & Schubert, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Moritz et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Assisted Language Learning
AbbreviationComput. Assist. Lang. Learn.
ISSN (print)0958-8221
ISSN (online)1744-3210
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Linguistics and Language

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