How to format your references using the Computer Assisted Language Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Assisted Language Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta, S. (2015). Contingency management: Why it pays to quit. Nature, 522(7557), S57-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weyand, S., & Iwata, S. (2010). Biochemistry. Old gate gets a new look. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5988), 151–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Cuaresma, J. C., & Sanderson, W. (2008). Economics. The demography of educational attainment and economic growth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5866), 1047–1048.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakayama, Y., Moriya, T., Sakai, F., Ikeda, N., Shiozaki, T., Hosoya, T., … Miyazaki, T. (2014). Oral administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 is effective for preventing influenza in mice. Scientific Reports, 4, 4638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kizer, G. (2013). Digital Microwave Communication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., & Zhang, Y. (Eds.). (2015). Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II (1st ed. 2015). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Medwed, M., & Schmidt, J.-M. (2009). Coding Schemes for Arithmetic and Logic Operations - How Robust Are They? In H. Y. Youm & M. Yung (Eds.), Information Security Applications: 10th International Workshop, WISA 2009, Busan, Korea, August 25-27, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 51–65). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 24). Newly Discovered Stars Reveal The Fascinating Evolution Of The Milky Way. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). FCC: Ka-Band Satellite Application and Licensing Procedure (No. OGC-98-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, A. O. (2009). Observing action research processes in practice (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, May 5). An Intersection Where “Oh, No!” Meets “Watch Out!” New York Times, p. 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gupta, 2015; Weyand & Iwata, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weyand & Iwata, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Lutz, Cuaresma, & Sanderson, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nakayama et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Assisted Language Learning
AbbreviationComput. Assist. Lang. Learn.
ISSN (print)0958-8221
ISSN (online)1744-3210
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Linguistics and Language

Other styles