How to format your references using the Computer Assisted Language Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Assisted Language Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Casey, W. H. (2002). Geochemistry. The fate of chlorine in soils. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 985–986.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salichos, L., & Rokas, A. (2013). Inferring ancient divergences requires genes with strong phylogenetic signals. Nature, 497(7449), 327–331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barbot, S., Lapusta, N., & Avouac, J.-P. (2012). Under the hood of the earthquake machine: toward predictive modeling of the seismic cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6082), 707–710.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Piffanelli, P., Ramsay, L., Waugh, R., Benabdelmouna, A., D’Hont, A., Hollricher, K., … Panstruga, R. (2004). A barley cultivation-associated polymorphism conveys resistance to powdery mildew. Nature, 430(7002), 887–891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, M. A., & Kaplan, L. (2012). The Advanced Practice Registered Nurse as a Prescriber. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Toutkoushian, R. K. (2016). Economics of Higher Education: Background, Concepts, and Applications. (M. B. Paulsen, Ed.) (1st ed. 2016). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiao, J. (2014). Logistics Development in Fujian Province. In B.-L. Liu, S.-J. Lee, L. Wang, Y. Xu, & X. Li (Eds.), Contemporary Logistics in China: Assimilation and Innovation (pp. 85–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 9). Even Without The Asteroid, Dinosaurs Faced Double Doom. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program (No. CED-77-32). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, S. J. (2006). The Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1993, December 25). Neediest Cases Assists With a Christmas Tree. New York Times, p. 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Casey, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Casey, 2002; Salichos & Rokas, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salichos & Rokas, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Barbot, Lapusta, & Avouac, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Piffanelli et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Assisted Language Learning
AbbreviationComput. Assist. Lang. Learn.
ISSN (print)0958-8221
ISSN (online)1744-3210
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Linguistics and Language

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