How to format your references using the Composites Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.O. Kappe, Journal club. A chemist muses on the technique of microwaving flowing chemical reactions, Nature. 464 (2010) 817.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Withers, G.A. Neumann, Enigmatic northern plains of Mars, Nature. 410 (2001) 651.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Carrez, D. Ferré, P. Cordier, Implications for plastic flow in the deep mantle from modelling dislocations in MgSiO3 minerals, Nature. 446 (2007) 68–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Voiculescu, F. Bertocchini, L. Wolpert, R.E. Keller, C.D. Stern, The amniote primitive streak is defined by epithelial cell intercalation before gastrulation, Nature. 449 (2007) 1049–1052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Collins, Magic in the Ancient Greek World, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
J. Zihl, Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children: Visuoperceptive and Visuocognitive Disorders, Springer, Vienna, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J.K. Gilbert, R. Justi, Learning Scientific Concepts from Modelling-Based Teaching, in: R. Justi (Ed.), Modelling-Based Teaching in Science Education, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 81–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Communications.

Blog post
B. Taub, Indonesian Birds Face Extinction Thanks To Illegal Pet Trade, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Pipeline Safety: Management of the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Enforcement Program Needs Further Strengthening, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.S. Sever, A Quantitative Descriptive Study Using the Theoretical Domains Framework to Investigate and Compare the Psychotropic Medication Prescribing Behavior of Primary Care Prescribers, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Breathing While Undocumented, New York Times. (2010) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Communications
ISSN (print)2452-2139

Other styles