How to format your references using the Composites Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Sperandio, Microbiology. Virulence or competition?, Science. 336 (2012) 1238–1239.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.J. Martin, G.R. Mundy, Bone metastasis: can osteoclasts be excluded?, Nature. 445 (2007) E19; discussion E19-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Courchamp, R. Woodroffe, G. Roemer, Removing protected populations to save endangered species, Science. 302 (2003) 1532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Lee, P. Kermani, K.K. Teng, B.L. Hempstead, Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins, Science. 294 (2001) 1945–1948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Recho, Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
K. Basu, J.E. Stiglitz, eds., Inequality and Growth: Patterns and Policy: Volume II: Regions and Regularities, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Dahlhaus, T. Hunziker, S. Vassilaras, H. Al-Raweshidy, M. De Sanctis, PAN-Optimized Air Interfaces, in: R. Prasad (Ed.), My Personal Adaptive Global NET (MAGNET), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 135–243.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Communications.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Submerged Greek “Lost City” Was Actually Sculpted By Microbial Life, IFLScience. (2011). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Possible Increased Use of the Federal Telecommunications System (FTS) by Government Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.L. Ledgister, A study of transformational leadership and job satisfaction among leaders in Jamaica Baptist Union churches, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess, M. Goldstein, Justices Asked to Clarify ‘Benefit’ in Insider Trading, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Communications
ISSN (print)2452-2139

Other styles