How to format your references using the Composites Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.L. Mueller, Innate immunity. Recognizing the first responders. Introduction, Science. 327 (2010) 283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z.-H. Chen, P. Schaap, The prokaryote messenger c-di-GMP triggers stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium, Nature. 488 (2012) 680–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Ito, M. Uno, Y. Nakamura, A tripeptide “anticodon” deciphers stop codons in messenger RNA, Nature. 403 (2000) 680–684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhao, S.H. Lee, M. Huss, P. Holme, The network organization of cancer-associated protein complexes in human tissues, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.J. Bain, B.J. Wild, A.D. Stephens, L.A. Phelan, Variant Haemoglobins, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
G. Baldacchino, D. Niles, eds., Island Futures: Conservation and Development Across the Asia-Pacific Region, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
K.C. Das, Nuclear Hematology, in: A.H. Elgazzar (Ed.), The Pathophysiologic Basis of Nuclear Medicine, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 90–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Communications.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Ants Behave As Sheer-Thinning Fluid, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Force Bombers: Conventional Capabilities of the B-1B Bomber, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Yuan, Membrane Protein Insertion in Bacteria by the YidC and Sec Pathway, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, From the Farm | How to Skip Supermarkets, New York Times. (2008) NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Communications
ISSN (print)2452-2139

Other styles