How to format your references using the Composites Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Stearns, Cell biology. Centrioles, in absentia, Science. 348 (2015) 1091–1092.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Tulina, E. Matunis, Control of stem cell self-renewal in Drosophila spermatogenesis by JAK-STAT signaling, Science. 294 (2001) 2546–2549.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.K.H. Saitta, T. Legron-Rodriguez, M.A. Bowdon, IBI* series winner. An inquiry into the water around us, Science. 341 (2013) 971–972.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Dommett, V. Coizet, C.D. Blaha, J. Martindale, V. Lefebvre, N. Walton, J.E.W. Mayhew, P.G. Overton, P. Redgrave, How visual stimuli activate dopaminergic neurons at short latency, Science. 307 (2005) 1476–1479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Hendrick, Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
M. Andresen, C. Nowak, eds., Human Resource Management Practices: Assessing Added Value, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Caicedo, M.D. Papademetriou, C.E. Elwell, A. Hoskote, M.J. Elliott, S. Van Huffel, I. Tachtsidis, Canonical Correlation Analysis in the Study of Cerebral and Peripheral Haemodynamics Interrelations with Systemic Variables in Neonates Supported on ECMO, in: W.J. Welch, F. Palm, D.F. Bruley, D.K. Harrison (Eds.), Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXIV, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 23–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Communications.

Blog post
T. Hale, You Can Now Take A Driverless Uber In The US, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Inquiry About the Research Grant To Develop a Portable Computer To Record Traffic Information for Verifying the Accuracy of Charges for Telecommunications Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.L. PerLee-Lange, An introduction to the juvenile dependency court process and the child welfare system: A curriculum for parents, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Bronze Star: Gregg LeFevre Is the City’s Busiest Public Sculptor, New York Times. (2003) 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Communications
ISSN (print)2452-2139

Other styles