How to format your references using the Comparative Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Menaker M. Circadian rhythms. Circadian photoreception. Science. 2003;299:213–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thomas GL, Thorne RE. Night-time predation by Steller sea lions. Nature. 2001;411:1013.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nagao K, Adachi Y, Yanagida M. Separase-mediated cleavage of cohesin at interphase is required for DNA repair. Nature. 2004;430:1044–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fouchet T, Guerlet S, Strobel DF, Simon-Miller AA, Bézard B, Flasar FM. An equatorial oscillation in Saturn’s middle atmosphere. Nature. 2008;453:200–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Murthy DNP, Kurvinen M, Töyrylä I. Warranty Fraud Management: Reducing Fraud and Other Excess Costs in Warranty and Service Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Ludäscher B, Mamoulis N, editors. Scientific and Statistical Database Management: 20th International Conference, SSDBM 2008, Hong Kong, China, July 9-11, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Henkel M, Pleimling M. Local Scale-invariance II: z =/ 2. In: Pleimling M, editor. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions: Volume 2: Ageing and Dynamical Scaling Far from Equilibrium. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 291–336.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Hepatology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Robots To The Rescue Of The Great Barrier Reef. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Operations of and Outlook for the Highway Trust Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Liu Y. Analysis on the distinct path in a star interconnection network. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chivers CJ, ERIN ARVEDLUND; C.J. Chivers reported from Moscow; Erin Arvedlund from Moscow, Buchalki;, Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting from Domodedovo International Airport for this article. Investigators Seek Causes of Near-Simultaneous Jet Crashes in Russia That Killed 89. New York Times. 2004;:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Hepatology
ISSN (print)1476-5926

Other styles