How to format your references using the Animal Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Funk, C.D., 2001. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes: advances in eicosanoid biology. Science 294, 1871–1875.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ganopolski, A., Rahmstorf, S., 2001. Rapid changes of glacial climate simulated in a coupled climate model. Nature 409, 153–158.
A journal article with 3 authors
David, S.S., O’Shea, V.L., Kundu, S., 2007. Base-excision repair of oxidative DNA damage. Nature 447, 941–950.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wöhri, A.B., Katona, G., Johansson, L.C., Fritz, E., Malmerberg, E., Andersson, M., Vincent, J., Eklund, M., Cammarata, M., Wulff, M., Davidsson, J., Groenhof, G., Neutze, R., 2010. Light-induced structural changes in a photosynthetic reaction center caught by Laue diffraction. Science 328, 630–633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massotte, P., Corsi, P., 2017. Smart Decisions in Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dou, R. (Ed.), 2013. Proceedings of 2012 3rd International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering and Management Innovation (IEMI2012). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Vá mos, T., 2009. Social, Organizational, and Individual Impacts of Automation, in: Nof, S.Y. (Ed.), Springer Handbook of Automation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 71–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Gene.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Court Declares Captive Orangutan Is “Non-Human Person” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1992 (No. RCED-94-17). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, W.A., 2010. Middle school students’ experiences on a science museum field trip as Preparation for Future Learning (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017. 47 Years Later, a Murder Victim Defined by Aliases Has a Name. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Funk, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Funk, 2001; Ganopolski and Rahmstorf, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ganopolski and Rahmstorf, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wöhri et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Gene
ISSN (print)2352-4065

Other styles