How to format your references using the Animal Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002. Corridor at the crossroads: Michigan. Nature 420, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Si, Q., Steglich, F., 2010. Heavy fermions and quantum phase transitions. Science 329, 1161–1166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, J., Bai, L., Wang, M.D., 2013. Transcription under torsion. Science 340, 1580–1583.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bernal, D., Donley, J.M., Shadwick, R.E., Syme, D.A., 2005. Mammal-like muscles power swimming in a cold-water shark. Nature 437, 1349–1352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strome, T.L., 2013. Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lech, M., Song, I., Yellowlees, P., Diederich, J. (Eds.), 2014. Mental Health Informatics, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimick, J.B., Shih, T., Ryan, A.M., 2014. Health Policy Research in Surgery, in: Dimick, J.B., Greenberg, C.C. (Eds.), Success in Academic Surgery: Health Services Research, Success in Academic Surgery. Springer, London, pp. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Gene.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. How Meditation Affects The Brain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. District of Columbia Public Schools: Availability of Funds and the Cost of FY 1997 Roof Projects (No. T-AIMD-98-95). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rouhani, M., 2013. Overdose prevention and naloxone distribution: A grant project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2008. Kept From TV, Report on Moscow Finds an Audience. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Si and Steglich, 2010; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Si and Steglich, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Bernal et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Gene
ISSN (print)2352-4065

Other styles