How to format your references using the Animal Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ando, K., 2006. Materials science. Seeking room-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Science 312, 1883–1885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fainman, Y., Porter, G., 2013. Applied physics. Directing data center traffic. Science 342, 202–203.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, M., Butka, E., Wang, X., 2014. Comprehensive quantification of triacylglycerols in soybean seeds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with multiple neutral loss scans. Sci. Rep. 4, 6581.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoshie, T., Scherer, A., Hendrickson, J., Khitrova, G., Gibbs, H.M., Rupper, G., Ell, C., Shchekin, O.B., Deppe, D.G., 2004. Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity. Nature 432, 200–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mainardi, R.L., 2011. Harnessing the Power of Continuous Auditing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Masson, A., Shariff, M.J. (Eds.), 2009. Legal Strategies: How Corporations Use Law to Improve Performance. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeung, M.J., Pasieka, J.L., 2012. Surgical Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism, in: A, K.M.A., Clark, O.H. (Eds.), Handbook of Parathyroid Diseases: A Case-Based Practical Guide. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Gene.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. In The Path Of The Polar Bears: What It’s Like To Be An Arctic Scientist [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System (No. T-RCED-95-219). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Driskill, K.M., 2010. A qualitative study of teacher understanding and use of differentiated instruction to promote reading achievement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K., 2014. Coaxing Fire and Police Staffs in Arizona to Cut Own Pensions. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ando, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ando, 2006; Fainman and Porter, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fainman and Porter, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshie et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Gene
ISSN (print)2352-4065

Other styles