How to format your references using the Animal Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2014. Europe needs a research leader who will lead. Nature 512, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teague, B.P., Weiss, R., 2015. SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. Synthetic communities, the sum of parts. Science 349, 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripodi, M., Stepien, A.E., Arber, S., 2011. Motor antagonism exposed by spatial segregation and timing of neurogenesis. Nature 479, 61–66.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuiken, T., Rimmelzwaan, G., van Riel, D., van Amerongen, G., Baars, M., Fouchier, R., Osterhaus, A., 2004. Avian H5N1 influenza in cats. Science 306, 241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voigtman, E., 2017. Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Carating, R.B., 2014. The Soils of the Philippines, World Soils Book Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Brauer, H., Ziolkowski, M., 2005. Shape Optimization with Adaptive Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms, in: Wiak, S., Krawczyk, A., Trlep, M. (Eds.), Computer Engineering in Applied Electromagnetism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Gene.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Pillbugs May Help Buffer Damages from Global Warming [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. BPA Management of ADP Systems Development Activities (No. B-115369). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Archibald, G.A., 2008. Regionalizing competitive talent: An exploratory study of the role of human capital management in the context of economic integration and labor mobility (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Justice Recalls Treats Laced With Poison. New York Times A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2014; Teague and Weiss, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teague and Weiss, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuiken et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Gene
ISSN (print)2352-4065

Other styles