How to format your references using the Cognitive Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitzpatrick, Y. (2013). Cover stories: Animal attraction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6123), 1001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oh, M., & Mirkin, C. A. (2005). Chemically tailorable colloidal particles from infinite coordination polymers. Nature, 438(7068), 651–654.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, K., Cao, P., & Heath, J. R. (2010). Graphene visualizes the first water adlayers on mica at ambient conditions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5996), 1188–1191.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nioche, P., Berka, V., Vipond, J., Minton, N., Tsai, A.-L., & Raman, C. S. (2004). Femtomolar sensitivity of a NO sensor from Clostridium botulinum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1550–1553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beneke, D., Peters, M., Glasser, D., & Hildebrandt, D. (2012). Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eiderman, V. Y., & Samokhin, M. V. (Eds.). (2005). Selected Topics in Complex Analysis: The S. Ya. Khavinson Memorial Volume (Vol. 158). Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Barkowsky, T. (2007). Modeling Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing. In F. Mast & L. Jäncke (Eds.), Spatial Processing in Navigation, Imagery and Perception (pp. 67–84). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 26). DNA Origami Just Got Better. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Data Mining: Early Attention to Privacy in Developing a Key DHS Program Could Reduce Risks (No. GAO-07-293). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kargbo, A. H. (2019). An Approach to Dynamic Resource Allocation for Electric Power Disaster Response Management (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, May 29). Sharing a Name With His Game, and Doing His Best to Live Up to It. New York Times, p. D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitzpatrick, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fitzpatrick, 2013; Oh & Mirkin, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oh & Mirkin, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Xu, Cao, & Heath, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nioche et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Development
AbbreviationCogn. Dev.
ISSN (print)0885-2014
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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