How to format your references using the Cognitive Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Abbott A. Levodopa: the story so far. Nature. 2010;466:S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. MacLean RC, Gudelj I. Resource competition and social conflict in experimental populations of yeast. Nature. 2006;441:498–501.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Blackburn EH, Epel ES, Lin J. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection. Science. 2015;350:1193–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yoshida K, Toyoura K, Matsunaga K, Nakahira A, Kurata H, Ikuhara YH, et al. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wiesmann U, Choi IS, Dombrowski E-M. Fundamentals of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Gervasi O, Gavrilova ML, Kumar V, Laganà A, Lee HP, Mun Y, et al., editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2005: International Conference, Singapore, May 9-12, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. La Piscopia P, Sullivan EE, McDermott C. From Feast to Famine? The Archaeological Profession in Ireland in the New Millennium. In: Jameson JH, Eogan J, editors. Training and Practice for Modern Day Archaeologists. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Computation.

Blog post
1. Taub B. South Africa Lifts Ban On Sale Of Rhino Horn [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Schools: Funding and Operating Alternatives for Education of Dependents. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Dec. Report No.: HRD-87-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Griffin JC. Animal and soul: Animals in Native American mythologies and the individuation process [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Review: In ‘Southwest of Salem,’ 4 Women Convicted of Sexual Assault Fight for Justice. New York Times. 2016 Sep 15;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Computation
AbbreviationCognit. Comput.
ISSN (print)1866-9956
ISSN (online)1866-9964
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Cognitive Neuroscience

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