How to format your references using the Cognitive Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Greer A. Chemistry. Enhanced: a view of unusual peroxides. Science. 2003;302:235–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Oppenheim J, Wehner S. The uncertainty principle determines the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. Science. 2010;330:1072–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jiang P, Bertone JF, Colvin VL. A lost-wax approach to monodisperse colloids and their crystals. Science. 2001;291:453–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lei M, Wang J, Li JR, Wang YG, Tang HL, Wang WJ. Emerging methanol-tolerant AlN nanowire oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ghaye T. Building the Reflective Healthcare Organisation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Kluve J. Active Labor Market Policies in Europe: Performance and Perspectives. Card D, Fertig M, Góra M, Jacobi L, Jensen P, Leetmaa R, et al., editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Schein M. Procedure diagnostiche razionali. In: Schein M, Rogers PN, editors. Chirurgia addominale d’urgenza: il buon senso di Schein: Guida pratica per sopravvivere nella trincea delle urgenze chirurgiche. Milano: Springer; 2007. p. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Computation.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Climate Change Is Real But Good Says Putin Because We’re All Doomed Anyway [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FTS 2000: Status and Mandatory Use. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Apr. Report No.: T-IMTEC-93-5.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ziegler RT. The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J, Barnes B. Hulu’s Chief Since 2013 Quits to Lead Sony TV Unit. New York Times. 2017 Oct 24;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Computation
AbbreviationCognit. Comput.
ISSN (print)1866-9956
ISSN (online)1866-9964
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Cognitive Neuroscience

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