How to format your references using the Clinical Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kiehl J. Climate change. Lessons from Earth’s past. Science. 2011;331(6014):158-159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frusawa H, Matsumoto Y. Tuning the size and configuration of nanocarbon microcapsules: aqueous method using optical tweezers. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4074.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fabiańska J, Kassier G, Feurer T. Split ring resonator based THz-driven electron streak camera featuring femtosecond resolution. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5645.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hallem EA, Nicole Fox A, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR. Olfaction: mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant. Nature. 2004;427(6971):212-213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn G. HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Zäpfel G. Metaheuristic Search Concepts: A Tutorial with Applications to Production and Logistics. (Braune R, Bögl M, eds.). Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Hunger SP, Conter V, Raetz EA, Valsecchi MG, Henze G. Classification and Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. In: Reaman GH, Smith FO, eds. Childhood Leukemia: A Practical Handbook. Pediatric Oncology. Springer; 2011:79-120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew D. We’ve Created A New Vibration-Proof ‘Metamaterial’ That Could Save Premature Babies’ Lives. IFLScience. Published January 19, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Telecommunications: Strong Leadership Needed to Resolve Management Weaknesses, Achieve Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhu Z. Financial restatements: Implications for management earnings forecasts. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J, Kitsantonis N. Eurozone Agrees to Greece Debt Talks in Exchange for Bailout Payments. New York Times. February 20, 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Therapeutics
AbbreviationClin. Ther.
ISSN (print)0149-2918
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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