How to format your references using the Clinical Simulation in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Simulation in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pi-Sunyer, X. (2003). A clinical view of the obesity problem. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5608), 859–860.
A journal article with 2 authors
Könneker, C., & Lugger, B. (2013). History of science. Public Science 2.0--back to the future. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6154), 49–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Assender, H., Bliznyuk, V., & Porfyrakis, K. (2002). How surface topography relates to materials’ properties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5583), 973–976.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yan, H., Chen, Z., Zheng, Y., Newman, C., Quinn, J. R., Dötz, F., Kastler, M., & Facchetti, A. (2009). A high-mobility electron-transporting polymer for printed transistors. Nature, 457(7230), 679–686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, J. T. (1999). Methods of Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rogers, J. A., Ghaffari, R., & Kim, D.-H. (Eds.). (2016). Stretchable Bioelectronics for Medical Devices and Systems. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuan, W., Hu, L., Cheng, X., Li, H., Chu, J., & Sun, Y. (2012). Improvement of an ID-Based Threshold Signcryption Scheme. In X. He, E. Hua, Y. Lin, & X. Liu (Eds.), Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications: Proceedings of the CICA 2011 (pp. 29–35). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Simulation in Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 11). Switzerland Could be Receiving Post by Drone. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Strategic Airlift: Improvements in C-5 Mission Capability Can Help Meet Airlift Requirements (NSIAD-96-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Muniyappa, V. K. (2012). Performance analysis of IPv4 versus IPv6 in a simple campus network [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., & Bosman, J. (2017, May 14). A ‘Passionate’ Seeker of Voter Fraud in Kansas Gets a National Soapbox. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pi-Sunyer, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Könneker & Lugger, 2013; Pi-Sunyer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Könneker & Lugger, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Assender et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yan et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Simulation in Nursing
AbbreviationClin. Simul. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1876-1399
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Nursing (miscellaneous)

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