How to format your references using the Clinical Simulation in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Simulation in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L. (2014). Therapy: This time it’s personal. Nature, 509(7502), S52-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikkala, O., & ten Brinke, G. (2002). Functional materials based on self-assembly of polymeric supramolecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2407–2409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cronin, T. W., Caldwell, R. L., & Marshall, J. (2001). Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp. Nature, 411(6837), 547–548.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, X.-D., Liu, Z.-B., Jiang, W.-S., Yan, X.-Q., Xing, F., Wang, P., Chen, Y., & Tian, J.-G. (2013). The selective transfer of patterned graphene. Scientific Reports, 3, 3216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiorenzani, S., Ravelli, S., & Edoli, E. (2012). The Handbook of Energy Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Margheritini, F., & Rossi, R. (Eds.). (2011). Orthopedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Coventry, B. J., & Walsh, J. (2014). Amputation Surgery. In B. J. Coventry (Ed.), Cardio-Thoracic, Vascular, Renal and Transplant Surgery (pp. 73–82). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Simulation in Nursing.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 2). Dragonfish Have A Really Freaky Way Of Opening Their Jaws. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Air Force Pilots: U.S. Air Force Requirements, Inventory, and Related Data (NSIAD-88-163). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Owen, A. K. (2012). Preventive health behaviors: A look at the correlation between regular physical activity and routine cervical cancer screening [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, June 22). An Adoring Crowd, And a Dozen Things That Aren’t True. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gravitz, 2014; Ikkala & ten Brinke, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ikkala & ten Brinke, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Cronin et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Simulation in Nursing
AbbreviationClin. Simul. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1876-1399
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Nursing (miscellaneous)

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