How to format your references using the Clinical Simulation in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Simulation in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hampsey, M. (2012). Molecular biology. A new direction for gene loops. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 624–625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kobayashi, T., & Ganley, A. R. D. (2005). Recombination regulation by transcription-induced cohesin dissociation in rDNA repeats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5740), 1581–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Juanes-Marcos, J. C., Althorpe, S. C., & Wrede, E. (2005). Theoretical study of geometric phase effects in the hydrogen-exchange reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1227–1230.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, H., Jeffrey, P. D., Miller, J., Kinnucan, E., Sun, Y., Thoma, N. H., Zheng, N., Chen, P.-L., Lee, W.-H., & Pavletich, N. P. (2002). BRCA2 function in DNA binding and recombination from a BRCA2-DSS1-ssDNA structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5588), 1837–1848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jayaweera, S. K. (2014). Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hakim, N. S. (Ed.). (2009). Artificial Organs (Vol. 4). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagle, M., Booss, D., Schreter, I., & Egenolf, D. (2016). NUMA-Aware Memory Management with In-Memory Databases. In R. Nambiar & M. Poess (Eds.), Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking: Traditional to Big Data to Internet of Things: 7th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2015, Kohala Coast, HI, USA, August 31 – September 4, 2015. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 45–60). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Simulation in Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 30). Not Everything Gives You Cancer, But Eating Too Much Processed Meat Certainly Can. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Transportation Infrastructure: Estimated State Funding Under the Transportation Empowerment Act (RCED-97-234R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keep, A. W. (2013). A nanopass framework for commercial compiler development [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, August 23). Wall Street Journal’s Editor in Chief Admonishes Reporters Over Trump Coverage. New York Times, B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hampsey, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hampsey, 2012; Kobayashi & Ganley, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kobayashi & Ganley, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Juanes-Marcos et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Simulation in Nursing
AbbreviationClin. Simul. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1876-1399
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Nursing (miscellaneous)

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