How to format your references using the Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gehrels T. Brains, courage and integrity. Nature. 404(6776), 335 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Schumacher TN, Schreiber RD. Neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Science. 348(6230), 69–74 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Chow J, Kopp RJ, Portney PR. Energy resources and global development. Science. 302(5650), 1528–1531 (2003).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kumar A, Arruda TM, Tselev A, et al. Nanometer-scale mapping of irreversible electrochemical nucleation processes on solid Li-ion electrolytes. Sci. Rep. 3, 1621 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Péra M-C, Hissel D, Gualous H, Turpin C. Electrochemical Components. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Jain LC, Behera HS, Mandal JK, Mohapatra DP, editors. Computational Intelligence in Data Mining - Volume 3: Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, 20-21 December 2014. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrikovics S, Forró L, Gere G, Lakatos G, Sasvári L. Water bird guilds and their feeding connections in the Bodrogzug, Hungary. In: Limnology and Aquatic Birds: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference Working Group on Aquatic Birds of Societas Internationalis Limnologiae (SIL), Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, August 3–7, 2003. Hanson AR, Kerekes JJ (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 31–42 (2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Close-Up Photograph Of Pluto’s Surface Released [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Research: Systematic Selection and Evaluation Processes Needed for Research Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph WR. Physical Characterization of Vernix Caseosa: Implications for Biological Function. (2002).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Patrons Root for the Return of the “Cheers” of Clinton Street. New York Times, 147 (1998).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Practice
AbbreviationClin. Pract. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2044-9038
ISSN (online)2044-9046
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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