How to format your references using the Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearson H. Mystery virus slow to yield its identity as patient numbers rise. Nature. 422(6930), 364 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
Anfinrud P, Schotte F. Chemistry. X-ray fingerprinting of chemical intermediates in solution. Science. 309(5738), 1192–1193 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Borsa AA, Agnew DC, Cayan DR. Remote Hydrology. Ongoing drought-induced uplift in the western United States. Science. 345(6204), 1587–1590 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Froy O, Gotter AL, Casselman AL, Reppert SM. Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration. Science. 300(5623), 1303–1305 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balmori D. Drawing and Reinventing Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Shiffman MA, editor. Breast Augmentation: Principles and Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Miron A-D, Gensel J, Villanova-Oliver M. Semantic Analysis for the Geospatial Web – Application to OWL-DL Ontologies. In: Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems: 8th International Symposium, W2GIS 2008, Shanghai, China, December 11-12, 2008. Proceedings. Bertolotto M, Ray C, Li X (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 37–49 (2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Rate Of Deforestation In Cambodia is Alarming [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim L. Dual-class vs. single-class firms: Information environment. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Career Over, Where to Move? New York Times, RE2 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Practice
AbbreviationClin. Pract. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2044-9038
ISSN (online)2044-9046
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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