How to format your references using the Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deming D. Astronomy: A small star with an Earth-like planet. Nature. 527(7577), 169–170 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Steele BC, Heinzel A. Materials for fuel-cell technologies. Nature. 414(6861), 345–352 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
McDermott F, Mattey DP, Hawkesworth C. Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem delta 18O record from SW Ireland. Science. 294(5545), 1328–1331 (2001).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brandon CM, Woodruff JD, Donnelly JP, Sullivan RM. How unique was Hurricane Sandy? Sedimentary reconstructions of extreme flooding from New York Harbor. Sci. Rep. 4, 7366 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eklund C, Marks RB, Ponnuswamy S, Stanwood KL, van Waes NJM. WirelessMAN®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Salmon P, editor. Categories and Commutative Algebra. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pankin A, Kuzenny V. Data Harmonization in CIS. In: Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop, 17-20 May 2009. Popovich VV, Claramunt C, Schrenk M, Korolenko KV (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 63–76 (2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Fang J. Jupiter Was A Wrecking Ball That Smashed Through Early Solar System [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Centralized Subsystem for Paying Officers in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Basik N. An evolutionary approach to intuitionism and moral realism. (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. In the Age of Reality TV, a Best-Selling Author Calls In Real-Life Heroes. New York Times, A18 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Practice
AbbreviationClin. Pract. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2044-9038
ISSN (online)2044-9046
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles