How to format your references using the Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Postle K. Close before opening. Science. 295(5560), 1658–1659 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
Abramov O, Mojzsis SJ. Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment. Nature. 459(7245), 419–422 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
Babu MM, Kriwacki RW, Pappu RV. Structural biology. Versatility from protein disorder. Science. 337(6101), 1460–1461 (2012).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakano H, Hibino T, Oji T, Hara Y, Amemiya S. Larval stages of a living sea lily (stalked crinoid echinoderm). Nature. 421(6919), 158–160 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodman AH. Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chakrabarti BK, Bardhan KK, Sen AK, editors. Quantum and Semi-classical Percolation and Breakdown in Disordered Solids. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sulaiman H, Wickramasinghe N. Assimilation of Healthcare Information Systems (HIS): An Analysis and Critique. In: Critical Issues for the Development of Sustainable E-health Solutions. Wickramasinghe N, Bali R, Suomi R, Kirn S (Eds.), Springer US, Boston, MA, 49–70 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. These Adorable Sea Lions Are The Puppies Of The Sea [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Better Management Needed for Funds Provided Under Letters of Intent. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans MD. A Correlational Analysis of Teacher Observation Scores and Student Achievement. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J. Trust Bust. New York Times, BR13 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Practice
AbbreviationClin. Pract. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2044-9038
ISSN (online)2044-9046
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles