How to format your references using the International Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Elert E (2013) Calling cells to arms. Nature 504:S2-3
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Nudds RL, Dyke GJ (2010) Narrow primary feather rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx suggest poor flight ability. Science 328:887–889
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Panda S, Hogenesch JB, Kay SA (2002) Circadian rhythms from flies to human. Nature 417:329–335
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Xu W, Min X, Chen X, Zhu Y, Zhou P, Cui S, Xu S, Tao L, Song H (2014) Ag-SiO₂-Er₂O₃ nanocomposites: highly effective upconversion luminescence at high power excitation and high temperature. Sci Rep 4:5087

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Alberty RA (2005) Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Nasruddin FA (2016) Finite Element Analysis on Badminton Racket Design Parameters, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ainbinder D, Godin B, Touitou E (2016) Ethosomes: Enhanced Delivery of Drugs to and Across the Skin. In: Dragicevic N, Maibach HI (eds) Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement: Nanocarriers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 61–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Microbiology.

Blog post
1.
Taub B (2016) Giving Alzheimer’s To Cancer Cells Could Render Them Harmless. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/giving-alzheimers-cancer-cells-could-render-them-harmless/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2016) Intelligent Transportation Systems: Urban and Rural Transit Providers Reported Benefits but Face Deployment Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Starr MJ (2015) Tests for Positive Selection on Genes Encoding Heat Shock Proteins in the Marine Slipper Snail, Crepidula fornicata. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey G (2009) Echoes of Glory Fade at a Fork in the Road. New York Times B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1139-6709
ISSN (online)1618-1905
ScopeMicrobiology
Microbiology (medical)

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