How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnston LA. Competitive interactions between cells: death, growth, and geography. Science. 2009;324(5935):1679-1682.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wells JA, McClendon CL. Reaching for high-hanging fruit in drug discovery at protein-protein interfaces. Nature. 2007;450(7172):1001-1009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montoya JM, Pimm SL, Solé RV. Ecological networks and their fragility. Nature. 2006;442(7100):259-264.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu Y, Zhu LN, Guo R, Cui HJ, Ye S, Fang Q. Nanoliter-scale protein crystallization and screening with a microfluidic droplet robot. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon C, Hale R. Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Ruzhansky M, Wirth J, eds. Modern Aspects of the Theory of Partial Differential Equations. Vol 216. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Frey N, Fisher D. Reading and the Young Brain. In: Wasserman LH, Zambo D, eds. Early Childhood and Neuroscience - Links to Development and Learning. Springer Netherlands; 2013:43-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition Supplements.

Blog post
Andrews R. Practising Music Improves The Symmetry Of Your Brain. IFLScience. Published October 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implementation of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster HC. The Effect of Droplet Size and Sprayer Type on Physical Drift. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser B, Walsh MW. Ramapo Official Charged in Securities Fraud Case. New York Times. April 15, 2016:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition Supplements
ISSN (print)1744-1161

Other styles