How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savchenko A. Materials science. Transforming graphene. Science. 2009;323(5914):589-590.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheridan GK, Dev KK. Targeting S1P receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice improves early deficits in locomotor activity and increases ultrasonic vocalisations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge C, Leigh N, Sills A. A binary origin for “blue stragglers” in globular clusters. Nature. 2009;457(7227):288-290.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fujioka Y, Ishigaki S, Masuda A, et al. FUS-regulated region- and cell-type-specific transcriptome is associated with cell selectivity in ALS/FTLD. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jepsen TC. Distributed Storage Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2003.
An edited book
Grasswick HE, ed. Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science: Power in Knowledge. Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Combes C, Azema J. Inference of Markov Chain Models by Using k-Testable Language: Application on Aging People. In: Nguyen NT, Kowalczyk R, Fred A, Joaquim F, eds. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XVII. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2014:89-106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition Supplements.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dwarf Star Emits Solar Flare 10,000 Times Stronger Than Anything Seen From Our Sun. IFLScience. Published October 1, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Federal Payments to the Adelanto School District, California. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kellogg A. Hospital Lean and Six Sigma: Is There a Financial Benefit? Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. Quantum Leaps. New York Times. August 5, 2012:BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition Supplements
ISSN (print)1744-1161

Other styles