How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirchhoff F. Neuroscience. Questionable calcium. Science. 2010;327(5970):1212-1213.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cahoon LA, Seifert HS. An alternative DNA structure is necessary for pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Science. 2009;325(5941):764-767.
A journal article with 3 authors
Howell K, White JG, Hobert O. Spatiotemporal control of a novel synaptic organizer molecule. Nature. 2015;523(7558):83-87.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chavarria JA, Malin P, Catchings RD, Shalev E. A look inside the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield through vertical seismic profiling. Science. 2003;302(5651):1746-1748.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitz B, Ewing JJ, Hecht J. Introduction to Laser Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Bolay J-C, Chenal J, Pedrazzini Y, eds. Learning from the Slums for the Development of Emerging Cities. Vol 119. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Artstein-Avidan S, Florentin D, Milman V. Order Isomorphisms on Convex Functions in Windows. In: Klartag B, Mendelson S, Milman VD, eds. Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar 2006–2010. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:61-122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition Supplements.

Blog post
Andrew E. Microbes Turn Pee Into Electricity. IFLScience. Published March 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Bureau of Indian Affairs Should Do More to Help Educate Indian Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rich DW. Examining the relationship of values-based management in performance evaluations. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. ... and Making a Precinct True Blue for the Viewers. New York Times. January 19, 2003:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition Supplements
ISSN (print)1744-1161

Other styles