How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitzsimmons A. Planetary science. Ice among the rocks. Science. 2006;312(5773):535-536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanchez PA, Swaminathan MS. Public health. Cutting world hunger in half. Science. 2005;307(5708):357-359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bascom-Slack CA, Arnold AE, Strobel SA. IBI series winner. Student-directed discovery of the plant microbiome and its products. Science. 2012;338(6106):485-486.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang DD, Zhou W, Yan H, Wong M, Lee V. Personalized prediction of EGFR mutation-induced drug resistance in lung cancer. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taber DF. Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Bowen W. Living on the Edge: Iran and the Practice of Nuclear Hedging. (Moran M, Esfandiary D, eds.). Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lamperti M. The Choice of a Vein in Critically Ill Patients: Cost-Effectiveness. In: Sandrucci S, Mussa B, eds. Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters. Springer; 2014:31-42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition Supplements.

Blog post
Andrew E. Switzerland Could be Receiving Post by Drone. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Results Act: Observations on NASA’s May 1997 Draft Strategic Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watts KS. The Effectiveness of a Social Story Intervention in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Autistic Children. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Baker AL. Heroin Market Shapes Enforcer’s Rise and Fall. New York Times. June 27, 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition Supplements
ISSN (print)1744-1161

Other styles