How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNutt MK. Geophysics. Another nail in the plume coffin? Science. 2006;313(5792):1394-1395.
A journal article with 2 authors
Porcello D, Hsi S. Science education. Crowdsourcing and curating online education resources. Science. 2013;341(6143):240-241.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winter SS, Clark BJ, Taube JS. Spatial navigation. Disruption of the head direction cell network impairs the parahippocampal grid cell signal. Science. 2015;347(6224):870-874.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yeung N, Lin Y-W, Gao Y-G, et al. Rational design of a structural and functional nitric oxide reductase. Nature. 2009;462(7276):1079-1082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson TJ. Beyond Borders. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Kassel S, Wu B, eds. Software Engineering Education Going Agile: 11th China–Europe International Symposium on Software Engineering Education (CEISEE 2015). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosen G. Condo-ism and Urban Renewal: Insights from Toronto and Jerusalem. In: Lehavi A, ed. Private Communities and Urban Governance: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:77-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition Supplements.

Blog post
Carpineti A. New Asteroid Is Orbiting Jupiter And The Sun The Wrong Way Around. IFLScience. Published March 29, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Registered Traveler Program Policy and Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanchez G. An educational program to support Latina teen mothers: A grant proposal project. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lou Jepsen M. Bringing Back My Real Self With Hormones. New York Times. November 24, 2013:SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition Supplements
ISSN (print)1744-1161

Other styles