How to format your references using the Trends in Organized Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Organized Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole-Hamilton DJ (2003) Homogeneous catalysis--new approaches to catalyst separation, recovery, and recycling. Science 299:1702–1706
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson DW, Wallace JM (2001) Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science 293:85–89
A journal article with 3 authors
Ochedowski O, Bussmann BK, Schleberger M (2014) Graphene on mica - intercalated water trapped for life. Sci Rep 4:6003
A journal article with 5 or more authors
von Storch H, Zorita E, Jones JM, et al (2004) Reconstructing past climate from noisy data. Science 306:679–682

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Numai T (2010) Laser Diodes and their Applications to Communications and Information Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kashiwara M (2006) Categories and Sheaves. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang G, Fischer-Hübner S (2011) Timing Attacks on PIN Input in VoIP Networks (Short Paper). In: Holz T, Bos H (eds) Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 8th International Conference; DIMVA 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 7-8, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 75–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Organized Crime.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) World’s Fastest Camera Takes 4.4 TRILLION Frames Per Second. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) The Air Force Can Improve Its Maintenance Information Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De los Santos E (2014) Increasing the psychological well-being of undocumented Latino youth students in California: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling MK (2017) The Accidental Tourist. New York Times M2106

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cole-Hamilton 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson and Wallace 2001; Cole-Hamilton 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Wallace 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (von Storch et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Organized Crime
AbbreviationTrends Organ. Crime
ISSN (print)1084-4791
ISSN (online)1936-4830

Other styles