How to format your references using the Trends in Organized Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Organized Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hurtgen MT (2012) Geochemistry. The marine sulfur cycle, revisited. Science 337:305–306
A journal article with 2 authors
Schlapbach L, Züttel A (2001) Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications. Nature 414:353–358
A journal article with 3 authors
Houchmandzadeh B, Wieschaus E, Leibler S (2002) Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature 415:798–802
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Vulliamy T, Marrone A, Goldman F, et al (2001) The RNA component of telomerase is mutated in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita. Nature 413:432–435

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hogan K (2008) The Secret Language of Business. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Boquet P, Lemichez E (eds) (2005) Bacterial Virulence Factors and Rho GTPases. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Liang J, Wang Z, Liu X (2009) On Synchronization of Coupled Delayed Neural Networks. In: Kyamakya K, Halang WA, Unger H, et al. (eds) Recent Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 117–149

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Organized Crime.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Found: Preserved Dinosaur Cells – But Sadly Scientists Still Can’t Build Jurassic World. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Aviation Services: Automation and Consolidation of Flight Service Stations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Urquidi AJ (2015) Condolences to all of you: Late eulogies of a half-complacent birthday boy. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM (2014) At an 85-Year-Old Summer Retreat, a Makeover. New York Times LI8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hurtgen 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Schlapbach and Züttel 2001; Hurtgen 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schlapbach and Züttel 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Vulliamy et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Organized Crime
AbbreviationTrends Organ. Crime
ISSN (print)1084-4791
ISSN (online)1936-4830

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