How to format your references using the Trends in Organized Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Organized Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt-Kaler F (2014) Quantum physics: feel the force. Nature 510:349
A journal article with 2 authors
Endow SA, Higuchi H (2000) A mutant of the motor protein kinesin that moves in both directions on microtubules. Nature 406:913–916
A journal article with 3 authors
Milward GC, Calderón MJ, Littlewood PB (2005) Electronically soft phases in manganites. Nature 433:607–610
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nishimura EK, Jordan SA, Oshima H, et al (2002) Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination. Nature 416:854–860

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan MM, Islam MR (2016) Zero Waste Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
McLaurin BT (2012) Reconstructing Human-Landscape Interactions - Volume 1: Interpreting Desert and Fluvial Environments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Berander P, Andrews A (2005) Requirements Prioritization. In: Aurum A, Wohlin C (eds) Engineering and Managing Software Requirements. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Organized Crime.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Is This Really What A Big Mac Does To Your Body In An Hour? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) National Airspace System: Initiatives to Reduce Flight Delays and Enhance Capacity are Ongoing but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahschulte RL (2014) An Examination of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Detect, Practice, and Repair versus Traditional Cover, Copy, and Compare Procedures: A Component Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Frequent Fliers: Takeout Menus Can’t Compete With Politics. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt-Kaler 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Endow and Higuchi 2000; Schmidt-Kaler 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Endow and Higuchi 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishimura et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Organized Crime
AbbreviationTrends Organ. Crime
ISSN (print)1084-4791
ISSN (online)1936-4830

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