How to format your references using the Trends in Organized Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Organized Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finkbeiner A (2011) JASON past, present, and future: the world’s most independent defence science advisers. Nature 477:397–399
A journal article with 2 authors
Baron CL, Malhotra V (2002) Role of diacylglycerol in PKD recruitment to the TGN and protein transport to the plasma membrane. Science 295:325–328
A journal article with 3 authors
Catteruccia F, Godfray HCJ, Crisanti A (2003) Impact of genetic manipulation on the fitness of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Science 299:1225–1227
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shen Y, Joachimiak A, Rosner MR, Tang W-J (2006) Structures of human insulin-degrading enzyme reveal a new substrate recognition mechanism. Nature 443:870–874

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen K (2015) Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kempken F (ed) (2013) Agricultural Applications, 2nd ed. 2013. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li Y, Ngom A, Rueda L (2012) A Framework of Gene Subset Selection Using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm. In: Shibuya T, Kashima H, Sese J, Ahmad S (eds) Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: 7th IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2012, Tokyo, Japan, November 8-10, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 38–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Organized Crime.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Plastic Bags Efficiently Recycled Into Diesel Fuel. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Strategic Bombers: Updated Status of the B-1B Recovery Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liza JS (2009) Mentors’ perceptions of bullying in middle and high school settings. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L (2012) John Blair, Beto Sutter. New York Times ST18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Finkbeiner 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baron and Malhotra 2002; Finkbeiner 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baron and Malhotra 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Shen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Organized Crime
AbbreviationTrends Organ. Crime
ISSN (print)1084-4791
ISSN (online)1936-4830

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