How to format your references using the Trends in Organized Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Organized Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anthes E (2014) Ageing: Live faster, die younger. Nature 508:S16-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Turck F, Coupland G (2011) Plant science. When vernalization makes sense. Science 331:36–37
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaillard F, Scaillet B, Arndt NT (2011) Atmospheric oxygenation caused by a change in volcanic degassing pressure. Nature 478:229–232
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Burch JL, Goldstein J, Lewis WS, et al (2007) Tethys and Dione as sources of outward-flowing plasma in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Nature 447:833–835

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mesterton-Gibbons M (2007) A Concrete Approach to Mathematical Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Meleard S (2015) Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Tsirikos AI (2011) Congenital Deformities of the Spine. In: Yazici M (ed) Non-Idiopathic Spine Deformities in Young Children. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Organized Crime.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Two New Species Of Adorable Clown Frogs Discovered In The Amazon. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Social Security Administration: Information Systems Could Improve Processing Attorney Fee Payments in Disability Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang TT (2017) Acoustic and Image Vehicle Classification System. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2011) Down the Tube. New York Times BR15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anthes 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Turck and Coupland 2011; Anthes 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turck and Coupland 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Burch et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Organized Crime
AbbreviationTrends Organ. Crime
ISSN (print)1084-4791
ISSN (online)1936-4830

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