How to format your references using the Baghdad Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Baghdad Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fara P. A microscopic reality tale. Nature. 2009;459(7247): 642–644.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brumfiel G, Knight J. Climate of conflict: in the shadow of war. Nature. 2003;426(6968): 748–749.
A journal article with 3 authors
Draghici C, Wang T, Spiegel DA. Concise total synthesis of glucosepane. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2015;350(6258): 294–298.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Orzel C, Tuchman AK, Fenselau ML, Yasuda M, Kasevich MA. Squeezed states in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2001;291(5512): 2386–2389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Menk FW, Waters CL. Magnetoseismology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Beunen R, Van Assche K, Duineveld M, editors. Evolutionary Governance Theory: Theory and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 348 p. 8 illus., 4 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubíčková V. Application of Survival Analysis on Analysing the Association Between Chromosomal Aberrations and Carcinoma. In: Bris R, Majernik J, Pancerz K, Zaitseva E, editors. Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 93–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Baghdad Science Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. How World War II Spurred Vaccine Innovation. [Online] IFLScience. IFLScience; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Improved Management and Controls over Food and Beverage Service Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office. Report number: GAO-05-867, 2005 Aug.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deshotel MW. Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-world Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability. [Doctoral dissertation] [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perlstein L. The Transformer. New York Times. 2008; BR19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBaghdad Science Journal
ISSN (print)2078-8665
ISSN (online)2411-7986

Other styles