How to format your references using the Baghdad Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Baghdad Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conklin BR. Journal club. A geneticist wonders why we need to sleep. Nature. 2009;461(7264): 573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carmeliet P, Jain RK. Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases. Nature. 2000;407(6801): 249–257.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blundy J, Cashman K, Humphreys M. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. Nature. 2006;443(7107): 76–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rast JP, Smith LC, Loza-Coll M, Hibino T, Litman GW. Genomic insights into the immune system of the sea urchin. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006;314(5801): 952–956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bower JA. Statistical Methods for Food Science. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Cherry KE, editor. Traumatic Stress and Long-Term Recovery: Coping with Disasters and Other Negative Life Events.. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XV, 443 p. 6 illus., 1 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson KL, Hanel DP. Reoperative Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fracture Management. In: Duncan SFM, editor. Reoperative Hand Surgery. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 43–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Baghdad Science Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Are Animals Getting Smaller and Smaller with Rising Temperatures?. [Online] IFLScience. IFLScience; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications and Information Technology: Federal Programs That Can Be Used to Fund Technology for Schools and Libraries. U.S. Government Printing Office. Report number: T-HEHS-98-246, 1998 Sep.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sheah J. Reading Dreams: Representation of Dreams Through Artists’ Books. [Doctoral dissertation] [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. A 96-Team Tournament? Now That’s Madness. New York Times. 2010; SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBaghdad Science Journal
ISSN (print)2078-8665
ISSN (online)2411-7986

Other styles