How to format your references using the Baghdad Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Baghdad Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stern P. Depression. Defeating the dementors. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2012;338(6103): 67.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson GL, Lapadat R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2002;298(5600): 1911–1912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Provenzano V, Shapiro AJ, Shull RD. Reduction of hysteresis losses in the magnetic refrigerant Gd5Ge2Si2 by the addition of iron. Nature. 2004;429(6994): 853–857.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Belonoshko AB, Skorodumova NV, Davis S, Osiptsov AN, Rosengren A, Johansson B. Origin of the low rigidity of the Earth’s inner core. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2007;316(5831): 1603–1605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaplan W. Maxima and Minima with Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
Czumaj A, Mehlhorn K, Pitts A, Wattenhofer R, editors. Automata, Languages, and Programming: 39th International Colloquium, ICALP 2012, Warwick, UK, July 9-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. 700 p. 51 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Gal J. Exploring the Extended Family of Mediterranean Welfare States, or: Did Beveridge and Bismarck Take a Mediterranean Cruise Together? In: Ajzenstadt M, Gal J, editors. Children, Gender and Families in Mediterranean Welfare States. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 77–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Baghdad Science Journal.

Blog post
Taub B. Long-Term Cannabis Use May Make You Age Faster. [Online] IFLScience. IFLScience; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Effective Planning and Management Practices Are Key to Overcoming IT Modernization Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office. Report number: GAO-16-815T, 2016 Jul.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas-Whitman D. Treading water: Civic engagement efforts in a time of budget crisis at a public university. [Doctoral dissertation] [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. NBC News Revamps Leadership and Focuses Abroad. New York Times. 2017; B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBaghdad Science Journal
ISSN (print)2078-8665
ISSN (online)2411-7986

Other styles