How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Naldini L. Medicine. A comeback for gene therapy. Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):805–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank J, Agrawal RK. A ratchet-like inter-subunit reorganization of the ribosome during translocation. Nature. 2000 Jul 20;406(6793):318–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burtally N, King PJ, Swift MR. Spontaneous air-driven separation in vertically vibrated fine granular mixtures. Science. 2002 Mar 8;295(5561):1877–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piot P, Feachem RGA, Lee JW, Wolfensohn JD. Public health. A global response to AIDS: lessons learned, next steps. Science. 2004 Jun 25;304(5679):1909–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King AM. Internal Control of Fixed Assets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Farnell J. The Politics of EU-China Economic Relations: An Uneasy Partnership. Irwin Crookes P, editor. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Marchuk O, Ralchenko Y. Populations of Excited Parabolic States of Hydrogen Beam in Fusion Plasmas. In: Shevelko V, Tawara H, editors. Atomic Processes in Basic and Applied Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 83–101. (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Simpler, Smaller, Cheaper? Alternatives To Britain’s New Nuclear Power Plant [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financing Higher Education: Examples Comparing Existing and Proposed Student Aid Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Apr. Report No.: HRD-87-88FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winton TW. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Standards-based Grading and Student Performance [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2010 Aug 5;E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Naldini 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Frank and Agrawal 2000; Naldini 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank and Agrawal 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Piot et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol.
ISSN (print)1388-2457
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Sensory Systems

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