How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spinrad N. New ice age, or just cold feet? Nature. 2000 Jun 8;405(6787):623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan GD, Crump MJC. Cognitive illusions of authorship reveal hierarchical error detection in skilled typists. Science. 2010 Oct 29;330(6004):683–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Titus SL, Wells JA, Rhoades LJ. Repairing research integrity. Nature. 2008 Jun 19;453(7198):980–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang L, Chen Y, Ma J, Chen L, Xu Z, Wang T. Hierarchical SnO2 nanospheres: bio-inspired mineralization, vulcanization, oxidation techniques, and the application for NO sensors. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 16;3:3500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt-Ahmed K. Contemporary Islamic Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Melin P, Castillo O, Ramírez EG, Kacprzyk J, Pedrycz W, editors. Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems using Soft Computing Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. (Advances in Soft Computing; vol. 41).
A chapter in an edited book
Pasha MK. Modernity’s Islamicist: Sayyid Qutb’s Theocentric Reconstruction of Sovereignty. In: Humphreys SC, Wagner RG, editors. Modernity’s Classics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 101–20. (Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Why Are We More Likely To Get Cancer As We Age? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Agencywide Action Needed to Improve Management of Contract Modifications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-92-87.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tu K-H. Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Idea Reborn: Mets Consider Six-Man Rotation. New York Times. 2017 Jun 7;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spinrad 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Spinrad 2000; Logan and Crump 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan and Crump 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol.
ISSN (print)1388-2457
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Sensory Systems

Other styles