How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mignot E. Physiology. The perfect hypnotic? Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):36–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaleeba JAR, Berger EA. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion-entry receptor: cystine transporter xCT. Science. 2006 Mar 31;311(5769):1921–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akiyama K, Matsuzaki K-I, Hayashi H. Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature. 2005 Jun 9;435(7043):824–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Masuno A, Moriyoshi C, Mizoguchi T, Okajima T, Kuroiwa Y, Arai Y, et al. Stabilization of metastable ferroelectric Ba₁-xCaxTi₂O₅ by breaking Ca-site selectivity via crystallization from glass. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 22;3:3010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heitz E, Kreysa G. Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Abdulwahed M, Hasna MO, Froyd JE, editors. Advances in Engineering Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Current Status, and Future Insights. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kappler M, Sachs A, Seymen A. Shock Propagation Mechanisms and Business Cycle Convergence. In: Kappler M, Sachs A, editors. Business Cycle Synchronisation and Economic Integration: New Evidence from the EU. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2013. p. 147–70. (ZEW Economic Studies).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. The ‘Train Wreck’ Continues: Another Social Science Retraction [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a Forum: Ensuring Opportunities for Disadvantaged Children and Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Nov. Report No.: GAO-09-18SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson AO. Observing action research processes in practice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: TV Journalist Suspended For Comment. New York Times. 2004 Dec 9;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mignot 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kaleeba and Berger 2006; Mignot 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaleeba and Berger 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Masuno et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol.
ISSN (print)1388-2457
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Sensory Systems

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