How to format your references using the Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duster, T. Medicine. Race and reification in science. Science 2005, 307, 1050–1051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vrabioiu, A.M.; Mitchison, T.J. Structural insights into yeast septin organization from polarized fluorescence microscopy. Nature 2006, 443, 466–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fasel, R.; Parschau, M.; Ernst, K.-H. Amplification of chirality in two-dimensional enantiomorphous lattices. Nature 2006, 439, 449–452.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, D.; Dai, J.; Sun, H.; Hou, Y.; Yuan, J. Quantum simulation of thermally-driven phase transition and oxygen K-edge x-ray absorption of high-pressure ice. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weverka, P. Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 All-in-One for Dummies®; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118983904.
An edited book
Spatial Diversity and Dynamics in Resources and Urban Development: Volume 1: Regional Resources; Dutt, A.K., Noble, A.G., Costa, F.J., Thakur, S.K., Thakur, R., Sharma, H.S., Eds.; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; ISBN 9789401797702.
A chapter in an edited book
Kana‘iaupuni, S.M.; Else, I. Ola Ka Inoa (The Name Lives). In Learning in Cultural Context: Family, Peers, and School; Martini, M.I., Ed.; International and Cultural Psychology Series; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2005; pp. 109–131 ISBN 9780306486838.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antibiotics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Thawing Ancient Permafrost Shown To Rapidly Become Carbon Dioxide Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burns, K.N. Impact of Cognitive Tasks on Gait Parameters in Collegiate Athletes. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ferré-Sadurní, L. 18 Shuttered Catholic Churches May Soon Be Up for Sale. New York Times 2017, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntibiotics
AbbreviationAntibiotics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6382
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles