How to format your references using the Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scarpa, T. Research Funding: Peer Review at NIH. Science 2006, 311, 41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scita, G.; Di Fiore, P.P. The Endocytic Matrix. Nature 2010, 463, 464–473.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joughin, I.; Alley, R.B.; Holland, D.M. Ice-Sheet Response to Oceanic Forcing. Science 2012, 338, 1172–1176.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mondello, S.; Buki, A.; Barzo, P.; Randall, J.; Provuncher, G.; Hanlon, D.; Wilson, D.; Kobeissy, F.; Jeromin, A. CSF and Plasma Amyloid-β Temporal Profiles and Relationships with Neurological Status and Mortality after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartenberg, T.E. A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118545119.
An edited book
Bodvarsson, Ö.B. The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy; Van den Berg, H., Ed.; 2nd ed. 2013.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461421153.
A chapter in an edited book
Shiraishi, M.; Ito, A. Disturbance Observer Design Based on Frequency Domain. In Next-Generation Actuators Leading Breakthroughs; Higuchi, T., Suzumori, K., Tadokoro, S., Eds.; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 31–43 ISBN 9781848829909.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antibiotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. When Did Megalodon Disappear From The Oceans? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Army Corps of Engineers: An Assessment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement of the Lower Snake River Dams; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter, L.A. Defense Support of Civilian Authorities (DSCA): What Emergency Managers Need to Know. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. Bared Breast Enthralls Future Czar, and Stokes a Culture War. New York Times 2017, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntibiotics
AbbreviationAntibiotics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6382
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles