How to format your references using the Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. Microarray Technology: An Array of Opportunities. Nature 2002, 416, 885–891.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tatar, M.; Rand, D.M. Aging. Dietary Advice on Q. Science 2002, 295, 54–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas, D.S.G.; Knight, M.; Wiggs, G.F.S. Remobilization of Southern African Desert Dune Systems by Twenty-First Century Global Warming. Nature 2005, 435, 1218–1221.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Unlu, M.; Hashemi, M.R.; Berry, C.W.; Li, S.; Yang, S.-H.; Jarrahi, M. Switchable Scattering Meta-Surfaces for Broadband Terahertz Modulation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1994; ISBN 9780470938218.
An edited book
Web-Based Support Systems; Yao, J., Ed.; Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing; Springer: London, 2010; ISBN 9781848826274.
A chapter in an edited book
Bobrov, P.; Frolov, A.A.; Húsek, D. Brain Computer Interface Enhancement by Independent Component Analysis. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction (IHCI 2011), Prague, Czech Republic, August, 2011; Kudělka, M., Pokorný, J., Snášel, V., Abraham, A., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 51–60 ISBN 9783642316029.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antibiotics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Europe’s ExoMars Rover Has Been Delayed To 2020 Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nambiar, V.R. A Grounded Theory Study on Business Excellence Models in the United Arab Emirates. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Wing-Suited Stuntman Executes a Super-Hero Plunge. New York Times 2012, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntibiotics
AbbreviationAntibiotics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6382
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles