How to format your references using the Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sterman, J.D. Economics. Risk communication on climate: mental models and mass balance. Science 2008, 322, 532–533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tans, S.J.; Dekker, C. Potential modulations along carbon nanotubes. Nature 2000, 404, 834–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCarter, J.; Boge, G.; Darlow, G. Essays on science and society. Safeguarding the world’s natural treasures. Science 2001, 294, 2099–2101.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Malausa, T.; Bethenod, M.-T.; Bontemps, A.; Bourguet, D.; Cornuet, J.-M.; Ponsard, S. Assortative mating in sympatric host races of the European corn borer. Science 2005, 308, 258–260.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aquino, J.A. The International Family Guide to US University Admissions; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017; ISBN 9781119371014.
An edited book
New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition; Ramiro Fariñas, D., Oris, M., Eds.; International Studies in Population; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 12; ISBN 9783319430010.
A chapter in an edited book
Abbas, M.A.; Qadir, M.A.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, T. Semantic Aware Implication and Satisfiability for Conjunctive Queries in Semantic Caching. In Networked Digital Technologies: 4th International Conference, NDT 2012, Dubai, UAE, April 24-26, 2012. Proceedings, Part I; Benlamri, R., Ed.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 44–54 ISBN 9783642305061.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antibiotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Common Anti-Anxiety Drug Awakens Patient From Minimally Conscious State Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Autism Activities: Agencies Are Encouraging Early Identification and Providing Services, and Recent Actions Could Improve Coordination; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelleher, A. Gendered Intent to Turnover Resulting from Workplace Bullying in Nursing and Medical Fields. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Our Creation, Our Concern. New York Times 2006, WK1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntibiotics
AbbreviationAntibiotics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6382
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles