How to format your references using the Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramsay, J.G. GEOPHYSICS: Enhanced: A Strained Earth, Past and Present. Science 2000, 288, 2139–2141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higgins, A.M.; Jones, R.A. Anisotropic spinodal dewetting as a route to self-assembly of patterned surfaces. Nature 2000, 404, 476–478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winter, Y.; López, J.; Von Helversen, O. Ultraviolet vision in a bat. Nature 2003, 425, 612–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gossa, S.; Nayak, D.; Zinselmeyer, B.H.; McGavern, D.B. Development of an immunologically tolerated combination of fluorescent proteins for in vivo two-photon imaging. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein, A.P. The Psychology of Group Aggression; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2004; ISBN 9780470013458.
An edited book
Urban Environmental Management and Technology; Hanaki, K., Ed.; cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2008; Vol. 1; ISBN 9784431783961.
A chapter in an edited book
Frost, L. The Pleasures of Dystopia. In “Brave New World”: Contexts and Legacies; Greenberg, J., Waddell, N., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; pp. 69–88 ISBN 9781137445407.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antibiotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. New Diagnostic Platform Can Detect Over 1,000 Pathogens In Just 6 Hours Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Secure Flight: TSA Should Take Additional Steps to Determine Program Effectiveness; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo, F. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Stewart, J.B. When Politics Roils Market, Tuning Out May Pay Off. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntibiotics
AbbreviationAntibiotics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6382
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles