How to format your references using the Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Earnshaw, W.C. Cell biology. Keeping survivin nimble at centromeres in mitosis. Science 2005, 310, 1443–1444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Withers, P.; Neumann, G.A. Enigmatic northern plains of Mars. Nature 2001, 410, 651.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, U.; Schwarz, A.; Wiesendanger, R. Magnetic exchange force microscopy with atomic resolution. Nature 2007, 446, 522–525.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barnett, B.P.; Hwang, Y.; Taylor, M.S.; Kirchner, H.; Pfluger, P.T.; Bernard, V.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Bowers, E.M.; Mukherjee, C.; Song, W.-J.; et al. Glucose and weight control in mice with a designed ghrelin O-acyltransferase inhibitor. Science 2010, 330, 1689–1692.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forshaw, M. Understanding Headaches and Migraines; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470030233.
An edited book
Gruhn, R.E. Statistical Pronunciation Modeling for Non-Native Speech Processing; Minker, W., Nakamura, S., Eds.; Signals and Communication Technology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642195853.
A chapter in an edited book
Weltner, K.; Schuster, P.; Weber, W.J.; Grosjean, J. Exponential, Logarithmic and Hyperbolic Functions. In Mathematics for Physicists and Engineers: Fundamentals and Interactive Study Guide; Weber, W.J., Grosjean, J., Schuster, P., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 69–84 ISBN 9783642001727.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antibiotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Is Climate Change To Blame For Outbreaks Of Mosquito-Borne Disease? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NOAA Satellites; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Echols, K.I. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Storefront Takeout, From Scratch. New York Times 2007, NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntibiotics
AbbreviationAntibiotics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6382
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles