How to format your references using the Clinical Microbiology and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Microbiology and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tal A. Seeking sustainability: Israel’s evolving water management strategy. Science 2006;313:1081–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang M, Lingner J. Cell signaling. Tel2 finally tells one story. Science 2008;320:60–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruins HJ, van der Plicht J, Mazar A. 14C dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age chronology, pharaohs, and Hebrew kings. Science 2003;300:315–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marquardt H, Speziale S, Reichmann HJ, Frost DJ, Schilling FR, Garnero EJ. Elastic shear anisotropy of ferropericlase in Earth’s lower mantle. Science 2009;324:224–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choi N-E, Han JH. How Flavor Works. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Daradoumis T, Demetriadis SN, Xhafa F, editors. Intelligent Adaptation and Personalization Techniques in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. vol. 408. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Fowler MJF. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs. In: Hanson WS, Oltean IA, editors. Archaeology from Historical Aerial and Satellite Archives, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 47–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Microbiology and Infection.

Blog post
Fang J. Simple tree branch filter makes dirty water drinkable. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Encountering Problems in Acquiring Major Automated Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huff HK. Thumb Twiddle Glossolalia: The Soumage. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J, Maheshwari S. Facebook Overstated Video Views. New York Times 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Microbiology and Infection
AbbreviationClin. Microbiol. Infect.
ISSN (print)1198-743X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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