How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smaglik P. Boston: a magnetic hub. Nature. 2002 May 16;417(6886):4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Dudney NJ, Li J. Materials science. Using all energy in a battery. Science. 2015 Jan 9;347(6218):131–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Raihani NJ, Grutter AS, Bshary R. Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish. Science. 2010 Jan 8;327(5962):171.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Chan CX, Bernard G, Poirion O, Hogan JM, Ragan MA. Inferring phylogenies of evolving sequences without multiple sequence alignment. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 30;4:6504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Halloran M, Thies C. The Social Media Handbook for Financial Advisors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Todorov IG, Turowska L, editors. Algebraic Methods in Functional Analysis: The Victor Shulman Anniversary Volume. Basel: Springer; 2014. VIII, 294 p. 23 illus., 2 illus. in color. (Operator Theory: Advances and Applications; vol. 233).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bolten WW. NSAIDs. In: Kampen WU, Fischer M, editors. Local Treatment of Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Benefits and Risks. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 63–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Scientists Reconstruct Most Detailed Life History Of Any Dinosaur Known So Far [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scientists-reconstruct-most-detailed-life-history-any-dinosaur-known-so-far/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Administration of the Office of Education’s Student Financial Aid Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Apr. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bavkar IN. In-Node Vehicle Classification and Identification [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. Detroit’s Plan to Profit on Its Water, by Selling to Its Neighbors, Looks Half Empty. New York Times. 2014 May 26;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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