How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morbidelli A. Planetary science: How Neptune pushed the boundaries of our Solar System. Science. 2004 Nov 19;306(5700):1302–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jucker M, Walker LC. Neurodegeneration: Amyloid-β pathology induced in humans. Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):193–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pettinato G, Wen X, Zhang N. Formation of well-defined embryoid bodies from dissociated human induced pluripotent stem cells using microfabricated cell-repellent microwell arrays. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 10;4:7402.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yao Y, Huang Z, Xie P, Lacey SD, Jacob RJ, Xie H, et al. Carbothermal shock synthesis of high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles. Science. 2018 Mar 30;359(6383):1489–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krause TR. Leading with Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Schaaf P, editor. Laser Processing of Materials: Fundamentals, Applications and Developments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XIV, 234 p. 106 illus., 29 illus. in color. (Springer Series in Materials Science; vol. 139).
A chapter in an edited book
Cheung WS, Dragomir SS. A Survey on Ostrowski Type Inequalities for Riemann–Stieltjes Integral. In: Rassias TM, editor. Handbook of Functional Equations: Functional Inequalities. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 75–104. (Springer Optimization and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. New Breeding Strategy Found: Fully-Formed Froglets Emerge From Bamboo [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proposed Revisions to Procurement Regulations Covering ADP Equipment and Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Oct. Report No.: B-199089.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks ED. Teaching teachers: A study of teacher educators’ perceptions of the effect of meeting mandated NCATE standards [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD. Trump as Cyberbully in Chief? New Twitter Attack Draws Fire. New York Times. 2016 Dec 9;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles