How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Koentges G. Evolution of anatomy and gene control. Nature. 2008 Feb 7;451(7179):658–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Tomasello M, Call J. Methodological challenges in the study of primate cognition. Science. 2011 Dec 2;334(6060):1227–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Patterson D, Schnell M, Doyle JM. Enantiomer-specific detection of chiral molecules via microwave spectroscopy. Nature. 2013 May 23;497(7450):475–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW, et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science. 2002 Aug 2;297(5582):851–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Morag N. Comparative Homeland Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Hartlep ND, Hayes C, editors. Unhooking from Whiteness: Resisting the Esprit de Corps. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. XX, 164 p. (Constructing Knowledge, Curriculum Studies in Action).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Möller B, Rupp A. Faster Multi-exponentiation through Caching: Accelerating (EC)DSA Signature Verification. In: Ostrovsky R, Prisco RD, Visconti I, editors. Security and Cryptography for Networks: 6th International Conference, SCN 2008, Amalfi, Italy, September 10-12, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 39–56. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Graphene-Based Supercapacitors Could Lead To Battery-Free Electric Cars Within 5 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/graphene-based-supercapacitors-could-eliminate-batteries-electric-cars-within-5-years/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology Management: Improvements Needed in Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Governmentwide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Mar. Report No.: GAO-04-478T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Zhao J. Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Urban M, Deegan L. T-Shirt Weather in the Arctic. New York Times. 2016 Feb 6;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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