How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Erdik M. Geophysics. Earthquake risk in Turkey. Science. 2013 Aug 16;341(6147):724–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Houweling AR, Brecht M. Behavioural report of single neuron stimulation in somatosensory cortex. Nature. 2008 Jan 3;451(7174):65–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Zhang Q, He K, Huo H. Policy: Cleaning China’s air. Nature. 2012 Apr 11;484(7393):161–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Jenni S, Leibundgut M, Boehringer D, Frick C, Mikolásek B, Ban N. Structure of fungal fatty acid synthase and implications for iterative substrate shuttling. Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):254–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P. Essential Guide to Acute Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Lee YP. Metamaterials for Perfect Absorption. Rhee JY, Yoo YJ, Kim KW, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2016. VIII, 176 p. 115 illus., 7 illus. in color. (Springer Series in Materials Science; vol. 236).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lotke PA, Simon RG. Flexion Contracture in Total Knee Arthroplasty. In: Scuderi GR, Tria AJ, editors. Knee Arthroplasty Handbook: Techniques in Total Knee and Revision Arthroplasty. New York, NY: Springer; 2006. p. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. What Is The Speed Of Dark? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highway Bridges: Linking Funding to Conditions May Help Demonstrate Impact of Federal Investment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Sep. Report No.: GAO-16-779.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Salie A. Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Berger J. Officer Kills Man After Stabbing in Synagogue. New York Times. 2014 Dec 10;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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