How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helm D. Climate policy: The Kyoto approach has failed. Nature. 2012 Nov 29;491(7426):663–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bers DM, Harris SP. Translational medicine: to the rescue of the failing heart. Nature. 2011 May 5;473(7345):36–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho G, Wu Y, Ackerman JL. Detection of hydroxyl ions in bone mineral by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Science. 2003 May 16;300(5622):1123–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wikramanayake AH, Hong M, Lee PN, Pang K, Byrum CA, Bince JM, et al. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation. Nature. 2003 Nov 27;426(6965):446–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morri G, Mazza A. Property Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Barros RC. Automatic Design of Decision-Tree Induction Algorithms. de Carvalho ACPLF, Freitas AA, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XII, 176 p. 18 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Carro LP, Golano P, Escajadillo NF, Vallejo MR, de Diego V, Pesquera LC. Normal Articular Anatomy. In: Kim Y-J, Mamisch TC, editors. Hip Magnetic Resonance Imaging. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. 17 Psychological Tricks To Make People Like You Immediately [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Work Related to ESEA of 1965. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-94-156R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kellogg A. Hospital Lean and Six Sigma: Is there a financial benefit? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Weary of War and Ready to Laugh. New York Times. 2014 Oct 10;C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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