How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman S. Mental health: depression needs large human-genetics studies. Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):189–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferrara N, Kerbel RS. Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target. Nature. 2005 Dec 15;438(7070):967–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohse D, Schmitz B, Versluis M. Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles. Nature. 2001 Oct 4;413(6855):477–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kuiper KF, Deino A, Hilgen FJ, Krijgsman W, Renne PR, Wijbrans JR. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science. 2008 Apr 25;320(5875):500–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh SM, Abusara MA, Orfanoudakis GI, Hussain B. Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Baptista R, Leitão J, editors. Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Networks, Knowledge Flows, and Industry Growth. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. VI, 401 p. 30 illus., 12 illus. in color. (International Studies in Entrepreneurship; vol. 31).
A chapter in an edited book
Lin J, Wu W. FEM Implementation of Micropolar Hypoplastic Model. In: Yang Q, Zhang J-M, Zheng H, Yao Y, editors. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 59–62. (Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Collection Of Artwork Commissioned By Gates Foundation Reminds Us Of The Importance Of Vaccination [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of the Emergency School Assistance Program Community Grants Awarded to the Nashville Urban League by the Office of Education, HEW. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Oct. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Michaels JL. Changing cooperation to competition disrupts attitudes and valence: First test of a dynamical model [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Over 50, and Under No Illusions. New York Times. 2013 Jan 12;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles