How to format your references using the Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hilgemann DW. Biochemistry. Oily barbarians breach ion channel gates. Science. 2004 Apr 9;304(5668):223–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Derse D, Heidecker G. Virology. Forced entry--or does HTLV-I have the key? Science. 2003 Mar 14;299(5613):1670–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hermanson O, Jepsen K, Rosenfeld MG. N-CoR controls differentiation of neural stem cells into astrocytes. Nature. 2002 Oct 31;419(6910):934–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kawai M, Ogawa Y, Shimmura S, Ohta S, Suzuki T, Kawamura N, et al. Expression and localization of aging markers in lacrimal gland of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heckman R. Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Lerma EV, Batuman V, editors. Diabetes and Kidney Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. XIV, 256 p. 61 illus., 23 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Rainov NG, Whittle IR, Doh-ura K. Treatment Options in Patients with Prion Disease - the Role of Long Term Cerebroventricular Infusion of Pentosan Polysulphate. In: Kitamoto T, editor. Prions: Food and Drug Safety. Tokyo: Springer; 2005. p. 41–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Jaw-Bone Discovery Reveals More About Secret Sex Lives Of Neanderthals And Early Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Bridges: Linking Funding to Conditions May Help Demonstrate Impact of Federal Investment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Sep. Report No.: GAO-16-779.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conner PA. The STAR Math test as a predictor of Arkansas BenchmarkTest scores [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Remnick N, Baker AL. Blood Spilled in South Bronx As National Gang Colors Blur. New York Times. 2017 May 15;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Med.
ISSN (print)1470-2118
ISSN (online)1473-4893
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles