How to format your references using the Clinical Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Millis AJ. Physics. Gaps and our understanding. Science. 2006;314(5807):1888-1889.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nahrendorf M, Swirski FK. Immunology. Neutrophil-macrophage communication in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Science. 2015;349(6245):237-238.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu CI, Shi S, Zhang YP. A case for conservation. Nature. 2004;428(6979):213-214.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Limelette P, Georges A, Jérome D, Wzietek P, Metcalf P, Honig JM. Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition. Science. 2003;302(5642):89-92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves R. Joomla!® Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Buyya R, Pathan M, Vakali A, eds. Content Delivery Networks. Vol 9. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Kobayashi T, Okada H, Makimoto N, et al. MEMS-based microsensors using piezoelectric thin films as sensors and actuators. In: Udomkichdecha W, Böllinghaus T, Manonukul A, Lexow J, eds. Materials Challenges and Testing for Manufacturing, Mobility, Biomedical Applications and Climate. Springer International Publishing; 2014:37-47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Otter Vs. Alligator Yields Surprising Victor. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public-Safety Broadband Network: FirstNet Should Strengthen Internal Controls and Evaluate Lessons Learned. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chanderbhan-Forde S. Asian Indian Mothers’ Involvement in Their Children’s Schooling: An Analysis of Social and Cultural Capital. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Design Teams Hired in Nassau Coliseum Project. New York Times. July 29, 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Colorectal Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Colorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1533-0028

Other styles