How to format your references using the Clinical Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen J. Physics. Fast electrons tie quantum knots. Science. 2009;323(5916):888-890.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irvine RF, Denton RM. Cell biology. Pyro-technic control of metabolism. Science. 2011;334(6057):770-771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson FE, Anisimov OA, Shiklomanov NI. Subsidence risk from thawing permafrost. Nature. 2001;410(6831):889-890.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Hora D, Dale R, Piiroinen PT, Connolly F. Local dynamics in decision making: The evolution of preference within and across decisions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffman RV. Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Koh H-J, Kwon S-Y, Thomson M, eds. Current Technologies in Plant Molecular Breeding: A Guide Book of Plant Molecular Breeding for Researchers. 1st ed. 2015. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikolopoulos G, Kalou A, Pierrakeas C, Kameas A. Creating a LO Metadata Profile for Distance Learning: An Ontological Approach. In: Dodero JM, Palomo-Duarte M, Karampiperis P, eds. Metadata and Semantics Research: 6th Research Conference, MTSR 2012, Cádiz, Spain, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:37-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
Luntz S. The Science Of Why This Dress Looks Different Colors To Different People. IFLScience. Published February 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi Y. Three essays on econometrics. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. In a Hospital Stay, No Time to Rest. New York Times. August 7, 2007:F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Colorectal Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Colorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1533-0028

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