How to format your references using the Clinical Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins FS. The case for a US prospective cohort study of genes and environment. Nature. 2004;429(6990):475-477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fry DP, Söderberg P. Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of war. Science. 2013;341(6143):270-273.
A journal article with 3 authors
Curry R, Dickson B, Yashayaev I. A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature. 2003;426(6968):826-829.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu W, Li W, Jiang P, Wang H, Bai E. Distinct temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition in forest organic layer and mineral soil. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Mullin T, Kerswell R, eds. IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition and Finite Amplitude Solutions. Vol 77. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Eaton GR, Eaton SS, Barr DP, Weber RT. A More in Depth Look at the EPR Signal Response. In: Eaton SS, Barr DP, Weber RT, eds. Quantitative EPR: A Practitioners Guide. Springer; 2010:37-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Japanese Experiment To Clean Up Space Junk In Orbit Encounters Problem. IFLScience. Published February 2, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Information on Amtrak’s Operating Expenses. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buquiran ES. Factors affecting members’ retention in Toastmasters International. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Georgia: Towns Demand Electricity. New York Times. December 22, 2004:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Colorectal Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Colorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1533-0028

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