How to format your references using the Clinical Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMurray B. Defusing the childhood vocabulary explosion. Science. 2007;317(5838):631.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domokos G, Scheuring I. Random perturbations and lattice effects in chaotic population dynamics. Science. 2002;297(5590):2163; discussion 2163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalka MB, Smith AR, Kalko EKV. Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest. Science. 2008;320(5872):71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
González LM, Ruder WC, Leduc PR, Messner WC. Controlling magnetotactic bacteria through an integrated nanofabricated metallic island and optical microscope approach. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schaik CPV. The Primate Origins of Human Nature. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Luo Q, ed. Advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems. Vol 72. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng H, Feng XT, Chen Z, Hudson JA, Wang Y. ISRM Suggested Method for Reporting Rock Laboratory Test Data in Electronic Format. In: Ulusay R, ed. The ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: 2007-2014. Springer International Publishing; 2015:57-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
Luntz S. Long-Lost City Discovered Deep Within Honduras Rainforest. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones LJ. From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Old Board, Hub’s Heart, Goes Out of Service. New York Times. January 24, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Colorectal Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Colorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1533-0028

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