How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petherick A (2010) Country by country. Nature 465:S10-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Steven AC, Spear PG (2006) Biochemistry. Viral glycoproteins and an evolutionary conundrum. Science 313:177–178
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen D-B, Xiao R, Zeng A (2014) Predicting the evolution of spreading on complex networks. Sci Rep 4:6108
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Das DK, Makhal K, Bandyopadhyay SN, Goswami D (2014) Direct observation of coherent oscillations in solution due to microheterogeneous environment. Sci Rep 4:6097

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bielecki TR, Brigo D, Patras F (2011) Credit Risk Frontiers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Xu F (2011) Introduction to Skin Biothermomechanics and Thermal Pain. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Swearer R, Hillen V, Bertola P (2016) A New Kind of University. In: Banerjee B, Ceri S (eds) Creating Innovation Leaders: A Global Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 81–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Proxima Centauri Has A Starspot Cycle Just Like Our Sun. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Surface Transportation: Issues Related to Preserving Inactive Rail Lines as Trails. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shenasi SY (2015) The Roots of Music Therapy: Healing the Wounds of the Psyche. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2013) Not at First Sight, or Even the First Dozen. New York Times ST12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Med.
ISSN (online)2001-1326

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