How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
You Z (2014) Materials design. Folding structures out of flat materials. Science 345:623–624
A journal article with 2 authors
Peng L, Mortensen NA (2014) Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas. Sci Rep 4:3825
A journal article with 3 authors
Andersson JO, Doolittle WF, Nesbø CL (2001) Genomics. Are there bugs in our genome? Science 292:1848–1850
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stroscio JA, Tavazza F, Crain JN, et al (2006) Electronically induced atom motion in engineered CoCun nanostructures. Science 313:948–951

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spector P (2016) Understanding Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Shek DTL, Chung P (2015) Promoting Service Leadership Qualities in University Students: The Case of Hong Kong, 1st ed. 2015. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Koschuch M, Hudler M, Krüger M (2012) The Price of Security: A Detailed Comparison of the TLS Handshake Performance on Embedded Devices When Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography and RSA. In: Obaidat MS, Tsihrintzis GA, Filipe J (eds) e-Business and Telecommunications: 7th International Joint Conference, ICETE 2010, Athens, Greece, July 26-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Atlantic Is Entering A Cool Phase That Will Change The World’s Weather. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Geostationary Weather Satellites: Design Progress Made, but Schedule Uncertainty Needs to be Addressed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castan JU (2010) Congruence x employment tenure: A study with transitioning youth with disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) YouTube Settles a Skirmish Over Songwriting Royalties. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Med.
ISSN (online)2001-1326

Other styles