How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wykes T (2010) Cognitive remediation therapy needs funding. Nature 468:165–166
A journal article with 2 authors
Benartzi S, Thaler RH (2013) Economics. Behavioral economics and the retirement savings crisis. Science 339:1152–1153
A journal article with 3 authors
Villegas P, Moretti P, Muñoz MA (2014) Frustrated hierarchical synchronization and emergent complexity in the human connectome network. Sci Rep 4:5990
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu H-C, Mauit O, Coileáin CÓ, et al (2014) Magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial thin film MgFe2O4 grown on MgO (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. Sci Rep 4:7012

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston M (2008) Powell-Smith & Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Britz M (2016) European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gramchev T, Pilipović S, Rodino L (2010) Global Regularity and Stability in S-Spaces for Classes of Degenerate Shubin Operators. In: Schulze B-W, Wong MW (eds) Pseudo-Differential Operators: Complex Analysis and Partial Differential Equations: International Workshop, York University, Canada, August 4–8, 2008. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 81–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Electric Spoon Zaps Taste Onto Your Tongue. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Federal Transit Administration: Bus Rapid Transit Offers Communities a Flexible Mass Transit Option. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nellenbach KM (2010) Contributions of oral language, problem-solving, and reading attitudes to young adolescents’ silent reading comprehension. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) 2,691 Decisions. New York Times WK1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Med.
ISSN (online)2001-1326

Other styles