How to format your references using the Climate Change Responses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Change Responses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Mapping life-science skills. Nature. 2004;427:469.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Deban SM, Olson WM. Suction feeding by a tiny predatory tadpole. Nature. 2002;420:41–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ammerman AJ, Pinhasi R, Bánffy E. Comment on “Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites.” Science. 2006;312:1875; author reply 1875.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Caulier G, Flammang P, Gerbaux P, Eeckhaut I. When a repellent becomes an attractant: harmful saponins are kairomones attracting the symbiotic Harlequin crab. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2639.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wiedenmannott W. Industrielle Wasseraufbereitung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1. Gierlichs B, Guilley S, Mukhopadhyay D, editors. Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering: Third International Conference, SPACE 2013, Kharagpur, India, October 19-23, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Borghese F, Denti P, Saija R. Transition Matrix of Single and Aggregated Spheres. In: Denti P, Saija R, editors. Scattering from Model Nonspherical Particles: Theory and Applications to Environmental Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 109–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Change Responses.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. A Guide To Using Drones To Study Wildlife: First, Do No Harm [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Procurements: Food and Drug Administration Circumvented Procurement Regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-87-48.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Boyer MD. Organizational improvisation within an episodic planning model: A systems perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wasik JF. How to Get Financial Advice in Your Best Interest. New York Times. 2017 Jan 13;BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Change Responses
AbbreviationClim. Chang. Responses
ISSN (online)2053-7565

Other styles