How to format your references using the Cladistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cladistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cho, A. 2014. Computer science. Quantum or not, controversial computer yields no speedup. Science (New York, N.Y.). 344, 1330–1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galonić, D.P., Gin, D.Y. 2007. Chemical glycosylation in the synthesis of glycoconjugate antitumour vaccines. Nature. 446, 1000–1007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalka, M.B., Smith, A.R., Kalko, E.K.V. 2008. Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest. Science (New York, N.Y.). 320, 71.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ferrière, L., Koeberl, C., Ivanov, B.A., Reimold, W.U. 2008. Shock metamorphism of Bosumtwi impact crater rocks, shock attenuation, and uplift formation. Science (New York, N.Y.). 322, 1678–1681.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, S., Xu, J.-X., Li, X., Shen, D. 2017. Iterative Learning Control for Multi-agent Systems Coordination. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Merkuryev, Y., Merkuryeva, G., Piera, M.À., Guasch, A. (Eds.). 2009. Simulation-Based Case Studies in Logistics: Education and Applied Research. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, E.M., Rodríguez O., C., Velásquez, J.D., Ghosh, G., Banerjee, S. 2013. Web Opinion Mining and Sentimental Analysis, in: Velásquez, J.D., Palade, V., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), Advanced Techniques in Web Intelligence-2: Web User Browsing Behaviour and Preference Analysis, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 105–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cladistics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Scientists Discover How This Beautiful Shimmering Creature Turns Invisible [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Many Proprietary Schools Do Not Comply With Department of Education’s Pell Grant Program Requirements (No. HRD-84-17). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y. 2017. Optimal control of heat engines in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. 2016. A Slowdown That Silicon Valley Doesn’t Believe. New York Times. BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cho, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Galonić and Gin, 2007; Cho, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galonić and Gin, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferrière et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCladistics
ISSN (print)0748-3007
ISSN (online)1096-0031
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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