How to format your references using the Cladistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cladistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narlikar, J.V. 2000. Venture funding for new ideas. Nature. 404, 707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, K., Mittleman, D.M. 2004. Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding. Nature. 432, 376–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, D., Wang, C., Guyot-Sionnest, P. 2003. n-Type conducting CdSe nanocrystal solids. Science (New York, N.Y.). 300, 1277–1280.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ohtsuki, H., Hauert, C., Lieberman, E., Nowak, M.A. 2006. A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature. 441, 502–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong, Q.-C., Hornik, T. 2012. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
An edited book
Meguid, S.A. (Ed.). 2016. Advances in Nanocomposites: Modeling, Characterization and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Saunus, J.M., McCart-Reed, A., Momeny, M., Cummings, M., Lakhani, S.R. 2013. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity in Primary and Metastatic Disease, in: Ahmad, A. (Ed.), Breast Cancer Metastasis and Drug Resistance: Progress and Prospects. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 65–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cladistics.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Caterpillar-Ooze Turns Ants Into Their Bodyguards [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Talking Books for the Blind (No. GAO-07-871R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere, E.C. 2017. Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. 2015. Applying for College Aid Is Set to Get Easier. New York Times. A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Narlikar, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Narlikar, 2000; Wang and Mittleman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Mittleman, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ohtsuki et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCladistics
ISSN (print)0748-3007
ISSN (online)1096-0031
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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