How to format your references using the Cladistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cladistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DePinho, R.A. 2000. The age of cancer. Nature. 408, 248–254.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bogdanove, A.J., Voytas, D.F. 2011. TAL effectors: customizable proteins for DNA targeting. Science (New York, N.Y.). 333, 1843–1846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishida, K., Montagner, J.-P., Kawakatsu, H. 2009. Global surface wave tomography using seismic hum. Science (New York, N.Y.). 326, 112.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Osyczka, A., Moser, C.C., Daldal, F., Dutton, P.L. 2004. Reversible redox energy coupling in electron transfer chains. Nature. 427, 607–612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago, C. 2015. Implant Restorations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhuang, Y., Yang, S.-Q., Rui, Y., He, Q. (Eds.). 2006. Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2006: 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Hangzhou, China, November 2-4, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, Z., Wang, F. 2015. A Comparative Study of Features and Distance Metrics for Trajectory Clustering in Open Video Domains, in: Zgrzywa, A., Choroś, K., Siemiński, A. (Eds.), New Research in Multimedia and Internet Systems, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cladistics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Scientists Provide Simple Explanation For Rare Five-Hour Space Explosion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. National Transportation Safety Board: Management and Operational Improvements Found, but Strategy Needed to Utilize Cost Accounting System (No. GAO-13-611). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reese, S.R. 2012. Transitioning to the oboe: Methods and resources to assist in switching to the oboe from other woodwind instruments (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2017. Scare Easily? You’re in the Wrong Place. New York Times. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DePinho, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (DePinho, 2000; Bogdanove and Voytas, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bogdanove and Voytas, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Osyczka et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCladistics
ISSN (print)0748-3007
ISSN (online)1096-0031
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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