How to format your references using the Cladistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cladistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawley, R.S. 2011. Molecular biology. Hitting a tiny target in the dark. Science (New York, N.Y.). 331, 870–871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rock, J.R., Hogan, B.L.M. 2010. Developmental biology. Branching takes nerve. Science (New York, N.Y.). 329, 1610–1611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foster, S.L., Hargreaves, D.C., Medzhitov, R. 2007. Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Nature. 447, 972–978.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krasilnikov, A.S., Yang, X., Pan, T., Mondragón, A. 2003. Crystal structure of the specificity domain of ribonuclease P. Nature. 421, 760–764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin, W.C. 2014. Wave Propagation in Drilling, Well Logging and Reservoir Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hubálek, Z. 2011. Microbial Zoonoses and Sapronoses. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Scholz, F., Kakiuchi, T. 2013. Salt Bridges and Diaphragms, in: Inzelt, G., Lewenstam, A., Scholz, F. (Eds.), Handbook of Reference Electrodes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cladistics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. The End Of Coconut Water? The World’s Trendiest Nut Is Under Threat Of Species Collapse [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Surface Transportation: A Comprehensive Plan Could Facilitate Implementation of a National Performance Management Approach (No. GAO-17-638). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ichiyama, J. 2014. Early goal-directed therapy in adult septic patients (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., Southall, A., Baker, A.L. 2016. Social Circles Collide on the Dance Floor. Then, a Deadly Brawl. New York Times. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawley, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Rock and Hogan, 2010; Hawley, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rock and Hogan, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Krasilnikov et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCladistics
ISSN (print)0748-3007
ISSN (online)1096-0031
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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