How to format your references using the City and Climate Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City and Climate Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta S. Surgery: Diverse interventions. Nature 2015;526:S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilberg MJ, Miller TJ. Comment on “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services.” Science 2007;316:1285; author reply 1285.
A journal article with 3 authors
del Campo A, Boshier MG, Saxena A. Bent waveguides for matter-waves: supersymmetric potentials and reflectionless geometries. Sci Rep 2014;4:5274.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huynen L, Millar CD, Scofield RP, Lambert DM. Nuclear DNA sequences detect species limits in ancient moa. Nature 2003;425:175–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon A, Itmi M. New Autonomous Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Langdon P, Clarkson J, Robinson P, Lazar J, Heylighen A, editors. Designing Inclusive Systems: Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Hachimi-Idrissi S. Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit. In: Wartenberg KE, Shukri K, Abdelhak T, editors. Neurointensive Care: A Clinical Guide to Patient Safety, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 73–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City and Climate Interactions.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce H. We Might Be About To Ruin Sushi For You Forever. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Muenyong-Zinner S. Care First Wound Healing Center a Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry E, Kishkovsky S. Joy in Russia As a Symbol Of the Arts Reopens. New York Times 2011:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCity and Climate Interactions
ISSN (print)2590-2520

Other styles