How to format your references using the City and Climate Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City and Climate Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arrow H. Evolution. The sharp end of altruism. Science 2007;318:581–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Biju SD, Bossuyt F. New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature 2003;425:711–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauf S, Waizenegger IC, Peters JM. Cohesin cleavage by separase required for anaphase and cytokinesis in human cells. Science 2001;293:1320–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Goodman RP, Schaap IAT, Tardin CF, Erben CM, Berry RM, Schmidt CF, et al. Rapid chiral assembly of rigid DNA building blocks for molecular nanofabrication. Science 2005;310:1661–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer VR. Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Shevelko V, Tawara H, editors. Atomic Processes in Basic and Applied Physics. vol. 68. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Foucaud F, Kovše M. On Graph Identification Problems and the Special Case of Identifying Vertices Using Paths. In: Arumugam S, Smyth WF, editors. Combinatorial Algorithms: 23rd International Workshop, IWOCA 2012, Tamil Nadu, India, July 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 32–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City and Climate Interactions.

Blog post
Davis J. Endangered Frog May Be Developing Resistance To Deadly Fungus. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Facial Recognition Technology: Commercial Uses, Privacy Issues, and Applicable Federal Law. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schewe EM. Re-establishing Connections: Listening to Women Psychology Students Talk about Recovery. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins L. Restaurants Were His Life. New York Times 2013:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCity and Climate Interactions
ISSN (print)2590-2520

Other styles