How to format your references using the Cities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan, M. A. (2015). PLANETARY SCIENCE. The martian lake chronicles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chouard, T., & Gray, N. (2010). Glia. Nature, 468(7321), 213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reynolds, A. M., Leprêtre, L., & Bohan, D. A. (2013). Movement patterns of Tenebrio beetles demonstrate empirically that correlated-random-walks have similitude with a Lévy walk. Scientific Reports, 3, 3158.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stockmann, C., Doedens, A., Weidemann, A., Zhang, N., Takeda, N., Greenberg, J. I., Cheresh, D. A., & Johnson, R. S. (2008). Deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor in myeloid cells accelerates tumorigenesis. Nature, 456(7223), 814–818.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. (2014). Specification Development. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leong, S. P. L. (Ed.). (2007). Cancer Metastasis And The Lymphovascular System: Basis For Rational Therapy (Vol. 135). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharyya, S., & Maulik, U. (2013). Target Tracking Using Fuzzy Hostility Induced Segmentation of Optical Flow Field. In U. Maulik (Ed.), Soft Computing for Image and Multimedia Data Processing (pp. 97–107). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 12). Chinese Families To Sue Over Lead Poisoning In Landmark Case. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Protest Alleging Agency Did Not Evaluate Proposals Fairly (B-178220). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y. (2017). Optimal control of heat engines in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tomasky, M. (2017, August 14). Single Payer or Bust? New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chan, 2015; Chouard & Gray, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chouard & Gray, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Reynolds et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stockmann et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCities
ISSN (print)0264-2751
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Sociology and Political Science
Urban Studies

Other styles