How to format your references using the Cities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Penn, R. L. (2007). Chemistry. Resolving an elusive structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5832), 1704–1705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thybo, H., & Nielsen, C. A. (2009). Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones. Nature, 457(7231), 873–876.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bridgham, J. T., Ortlund, E. A., & Thornton, J. W. (2009). An epistatic ratchet constrains the direction of glucocorticoid receptor evolution. Nature, 461(7263), 515–519.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, J. H., Lee, J. E., Kahng, J. Y., Kim, S. H., Park, J. S., Yoon, S. J., Um, J.-Y., Kim, W. K., Lee, J.-K., Park, J., Kim, E. H., Lee, J.-H., Lee, J.-H., Chung, W.-S., Ju, Y. S., Park, S.-H., Chang, J. H., Kang, S.-G., & Lee, J. H. (2018). Human glioblastoma arises from subventricular zone cells with low-level driver mutations. Nature, 560(7717), 243–247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hayward, A., & Weare, F. (2010). Steel Detailers’ Manual. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Jing, X. (2015). Frequency Domain Analysis and Design of Nonlinear Systems based on Volterra Series Expansion: A Parametric Characteristic Approach (Z. Lang, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
López-Lambas, M. E. (2010). Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Areas. In S. Rauch, G. M. Morrison, & A. Monzón (Eds.), Highway and Urban Environment: Proceedings of the 9th Highway and Urban Environment symposium (pp. 39–47). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cities.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2012, January 1). Watch What Happens When An Octopus Gets In The Way Of A Crab Migration. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). National Science Foundation Management Review of Research Grant Award Recommendations (PAD-82-49). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vundavilli, R. (2014). Bubble Removal in Microfluidic Devices Using Nanofibrous Membranes [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Martin, D. (2016, October 20). Phil Chess, Whose Label Elevated Unknown Blues Singers, Dies at 95. New York Times, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Penn, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Penn, 2007; Thybo & Nielsen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thybo & Nielsen, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Bridgham et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCities
ISSN (print)0264-2751
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Sociology and Political Science
Urban Studies

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