How to format your references using the Cities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sisodia, S. S. (2002). Biomedicine. A cargo receptor mystery APParently solved? Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5556), 805–807.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wijffels, R. H., & Barbosa, M. J. (2010). An outlook on microalgal biofuels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 796–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamb, D., Erskine, P. D., & Parrotta, J. A. (2005). Restoration of degraded tropical forest landscapes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5754), 1628–1632.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sriraman, S., Agarwal, S., Aydil, E. S., & Maroudas, D. (2002). Mechanism of hydrogen-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon. Nature, 418(6893), 62–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goria, S. (2017). Methods and Tools for Creative Competitive Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ferracchiati, F. C. (2011). Windows Phone Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach (E. Garofalo, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Onorati, T., Aedo, I., Romano, M., & Díaz, P. (2014). EmergenSYS: Mobile Technologies as Support for Emergency Management. In L. Caporarello, B. Di Martino, & M. Martinez (Eds.), Smart Organizations and Smart Artifacts: Fostering Interaction Between People, Technologies and Processes (pp. 37–45). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 12). How To Reach Zero Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Three Steps. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion (GAO-12-308). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston, B. P. (2014). An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. (2013, September 13). How To Get a Job With a Philosophy Degree. New York Times, MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sisodia, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sisodia, 2002; Wijffels & Barbosa, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wijffels & Barbosa, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Lamb et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sriraman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCities
ISSN (print)0264-2751
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Sociology and Political Science
Urban Studies

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