How to format your references using the Cilia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cilia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lloyd S. Physics. Quantum procrastination. Science. 2012;338:621–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. De Francesco R, Migliaccio G. Challenges and successes in developing new therapies for hepatitis C. Nature. 2005;436:953–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schibler U, Ripperger JA, Brown SA. Circadian rhythms. Chronobiology--reducing time. Science. 2001;293:437–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Young S, Axon DJ, Robinson A, Hough JH, Smith JE. The rotating wind of the quasar PG 1700+518. Nature. 2007;450:74–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Paris JL, Paris JL. CliffsNotes® Praxis II®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Gupta SK, editor. Technological Innovations in Major World Oil Crops, Volume 1: Breeding. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brown A, Green T. Issues and Trends in Instructional Technology: Despite Lean Times, Continued Interest and Opportunity in K-12, Business, and Higher Education. In: Orey M, Jones SA, Branch RM, editors. Educational Media and Technology Yearbook: Volume 37. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cilia.

Blog post
1. Hale T. This 104-Year-Old Cyclist Is Beating The Science Of Aging [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Job Training Partnership Act: Information on Set-Aside Funding for Assistance to Older Workers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jan. Report No.: HRD-90-59FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Frieberg A. The Project of Reconciliation: Journalists and religious activists in Polish -German relations, 1956–1972 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Erlanger S. Greek Statue Travels Again, but Not to Greece. New York Times. 2014 Dec 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCilia
ISSN (online)2046-2530

Other styles