How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahlberg PE. Comment on “The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus.” Science. 2004;305(5691):1715; author reply 1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalinin SV, Spaldin NA. Materials science. Functional ion defects in transition metal oxides. Science. 2013;341(6148):858-859.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fiorin G, Carnevale V, DeGrado WF. Structural biology. The flu’s proton escort. Science. 2010;330(6003):456-458.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Proskurowski G, Lilley MD, Seewald JS, et al. Abiogenic hydrocarbon production at lost city hydrothermal field. Science. 2008;319(5863):604-607.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tagliamonte SA. Making Waves. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Fischlin M, Katzenbeisser S, eds. Number Theory and Cryptography: Papers in Honor of Johannes Buchmann on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Vol 8260. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Cao Y, Leroux P, Steyaert M. Radiation Hardened Bandgap References. In: Leroux P, Steyaert M, eds. Radiation-Tolerant Delta-Sigma Time-to-Digital Converters. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer International Publishing; 2015:69-80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Meet The Parasites That Turn Their Hosts Into Zombies. IFLScience. Published October 31, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Better Information about Airline-Imposed Fees and the Refundability of Government-Imposed Taxes and Fees Could Benefit Consumers. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yates SL. Asian Indian Women with Gestational Diabetes Improving Care for Mothers and Babies “Dals, Dosas and Me.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker J. The Joys of Binge-Watching. New York Times. October 9, 2016:BR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationChronic Dis. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-882X

Other styles