How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greene M. Policy. A force for peace in the Middle East. Science. 2008;322(5905):1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shenoy SK, Rockman HA. Cardiovascular biology: heart fails without pump partner. Nature. 2011;477(7366):546-547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aubert J, Finlay CC, Fournier A. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2013;502(7470):219-223.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiang X, Shi Y, Yang J, et al. Rapid recovery of soil bacterial communities after wildfire in a Chinese boreal forest. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen JS, Fiedler-Kelly J. Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Chen L. Global Tea Breeding: Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives. (Apostolides Z, Chen Z-M, eds.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bundgaard H, Cold GE. Studies of Regional Subdural Pressure Gradients During Craniotomy. In: Cold GE, Juul N, eds. Monitoring of Cerebral and Spinal Haemodynamics During Neurosurgery. Springer; 2008:89-102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Wally The Whale’s Carcass Keeps Washing Up On California Beaches. IFLScience. Published July 18, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Contracts: Federal-Aid Highway Contracts Awarded to Minority- and Women-Owned Businesses. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sawant KG. A Chemo-Physical Model for Predicting Post Fracking Pressure Buildup in Pierre Shale. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Fervently French, Pétanque Draws All Ages. New York Times. June 3, 2007:WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationChronic Dis. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-882X

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