How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwin D. A call to the custodians of deep time. Nature. 2009;462(7271):282-283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saul J, Vinnik L. Earth science: Mantle deformation or processing artefact? Nature. 2003;422(6928):136; discussion 136.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta G, Jalil MBA, Liang G. Effect of band-alignment operation on carrier transport in Bi2Se3 topological insulator. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6220.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schneider U, Hackermüller L, Will S, et al. Metallic and insulating phases of repulsively interacting fermions in a 3D optical lattice. Science. 2008;322(5907):1520-1525.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wegener E. Montagegerechte Anlagenplanung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
Altrock U, Schoon S, eds. Maturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation. Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Krannich RS, Luloff AE, Field DR. A New and Different People: Sociodemographic Changes in Southwest Utah. In: Luloff AE, Field DR, eds. People, Places and Landscapes: Social Change in High Amenity Rural Areas. Landscape Series. Springer Netherlands; 2011:63-79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Forecasting The Weather Of Distant Hot Jupiters. IFLScience. Published October 20, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Essential Air Service: Changes in Subsidy Levels, Air Carrier Costs, and Passenger Traffic. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seefried VI. Timely and accurate decision-making during U.S. public health emergencies: Incremental Dynamic Decision-making (IDD) for public health emergency response. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Company for a Winter Journey. New York Times. August 14, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationChronic Dis. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-882X

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