How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greene M. The demise of the lone author. Nature. 2007;450(7173):1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thermann R, Hentze MW. Drosophila miR2 induces pseudo-polysomes and inhibits translation initiation. Nature. 2007;447(7146):875-878.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller-Butterworth CM, Jacobs DS, Harley EH. Strong population substructure is correlated with morphology and ecology in a migratory bat. Nature. 2003;424(6945):187-191.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deb SK, Wilding M, Somayazulu M, McMillan PF. Pressure-induced amorphization and an amorphous-amorphous transition in densified porous silicon. Nature. 2001;414(6863):528-530.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dayton G. Trade Mindfully. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Deutsch A, Brusch L, Byrne H, Vries G de, Herzel H, eds. Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Volume I: Cellular Biophysics, Regulatory Networks, Development, Biomedicine, and Data Analysis. Birkhäuser; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Stranieri A, Zeleznikow J. Data Mining with Rule Induction. In: Zeleznikow J, ed. Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases. Law and Philosophy Library. Springer Netherlands; 2005:83-98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Nest Architecture Determines Ants’ Capacity To Forage Collectively. IFLScience. Published October 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Survey of NASA’s Lessons Learned Process. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emale JM. An Examination of How Conglomerates Impact Small-Medium Enterprises in Their Relationship. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Clinton Delays Trip To Work, Pack Up And Fill More Jobs. New York Times. December 29, 1992:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationChronic Dis. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-882X

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