How to format your references using the Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wojchowski D. Eugene Goldwasser (1922-2010). Nature. 2011;470(7332):40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouhifd MA, Jephcoat AP. Aluminium control of argon solubility in silicate melts under pressure. Nature. 2006;439(7079):961-964.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsushita T, Mochizuki N, Nagatani A. Dimers of the N-terminal domain of phytochrome B are functional in the nucleus. Nature. 2003;424(6948):571-574.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhuang J, Chen X, Tan Z, Zhu Y, Zhao K, Yang J. A novel de novo duplication mutation of PAX6 in a Chinese family with aniridia and other ocular abnormalities. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4836.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stefanoiu D, Borne P, Popescu D, Filip FG, El Kamel A. Optimization in Engineering Sciences: Approximate and Metaheuristic Methods. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Lin F, Patel Z, eds. ENT Board Prep: High Yield Review for the Otolaryngology In-Service and Board Exams. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Deshmukh AS, Aminabhavi TM. Pharmaceutical Applications of Various Natural Gums Natural gums. In: Ramawat KG, Mérillon J-M, eds. Polysaccharides: Bioactivity and Biotechnology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:1933-1967.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Here’s Why You Can’t Hear Your Heartbeat. IFLScience. Published May 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Research, Engineering and Development Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher A-C. Exceptionality and parent -professional conflict: Causes, prevention and resolution. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Ex-Fox Hosts Engage in Feud On Settlement. New York Times. October 23, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
AbbreviationChronic Dis. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-882X

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